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Comparative study of the effects of different growth hormone doses on growth and spatial performance of hypophysectomized rats.

Kwak MJ, Park HJ, Nam MH, Kwon OS, Park SY, Lee SY, Kim MJ, Kim SJ, Paik KH, Jin DK - J. Korean Med. Sci. (2009)

Bottom Line: Cognitive function was evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM) test.The results indicated that GH replacement therapy in HYPOX rats promoted an increase in the body weight and the width of the tibial growth plate in a dose-dependent manner.Therefore it is concluded that rhGH replacement therapy in HYPOX rats stimulates an increase in somatic growth in a dose-dependent manner and also has beneficial effects on cognitive functions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

ABSTRACT
This study was designed to examine the effects of recombinant human growth hormone replacement on somatic growth and cognitive function in hypophysectomized (HYPOX) female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats (5 per group) were randomized by weight to 3 experimental groups: group 1, administered 200 microg/kg of GH once daily for 9 days; group 2, administered 200 microg/kg of GH twice daily; and group 3, administered saline daily. Somatic growth was evaluated by measurement of body weight daily and of the width of the proximal tibial growth plate of the HYPOX rats. Cognitive function was evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM) test. The results indicated that GH replacement therapy in HYPOX rats promoted an increase in the body weight and the width of the tibial growth plate in a dose-dependent manner. On the third day of the MWM test, the escape latency in the GH-treated groups 1 and 2 was significantly shorter than that in the control rats (P<0.001 and P=0.032, respectively), suggesting that rhGH improved spatial memory acquisition in the MWM test. Therefore it is concluded that rhGH replacement therapy in HYPOX rats stimulates an increase in somatic growth in a dose-dependent manner and also has beneficial effects on cognitive functions.

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The automated tracking system (Smart v.20®) used in the Morris water maze (MWM) test. There is a circular platform in the one of the quadrants. The 3 quadrants except the target quadrant that contained the hidden platform were used for entry during each trial on a particular day. The escape latency (the time taken to reach the hidden platform), the length of the swim path, and the swimming speed were measured automatically.
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Figure 1: The automated tracking system (Smart v.20®) used in the Morris water maze (MWM) test. There is a circular platform in the one of the quadrants. The 3 quadrants except the target quadrant that contained the hidden platform were used for entry during each trial on a particular day. The escape latency (the time taken to reach the hidden platform), the length of the swim path, and the swimming speed were measured automatically.

Mentions: Spatial learning and memory were evaluated in the GH-treated and control rats by using a modification of the MWM performance test (16). The MWM test is a memory test based on the capacity of animals to rescue themselves by reaching a hidden goal platform in a pool of water (16). The MWM test was conducted in a circular water-maze tank (diameter, 157 cm and height, 60 cm) filled with water (temperature, 24±1℃) that had been opacified by adding powdered milk. A transparent Plexiglass platform (diameter, 10 cm and height, 47 cm) was submerged 3 cm below the water surface and placed in the one of the quadrants. The maze was located in the center of a well-lit room and was surrounded by black curtains (placed at 50 cm from the pool periphery) that contained 4 distinct visual cues. The swimming path of each rat was monitored by an overhead video camera connected to a personal computer and was analyzed by an automated tracking system (Smart v.20®; Panlab SL, Barcelona, Spain) (Fig. 1). During the training period, the animals were required to locate the hidden platform, which remained in the same position, in relation to the external visual cues. The training was carried out in 1 block of 3 trials per day. To begin each trial, the rats were placed in the water facing the maze wall in one of the 3 quadrants except the target quadrant containing the hidden platform. The daily order of entry into individual quadrants was randomized. Each trial ended once the animals found the platform; if the rats were unable to find the platform within 90 sec, they were guided toward it by an experimenter. After a period of 30 sec on the platform, the rats were immediately re-placed at a different start position for the next trial. At the end of a training session, the rats were dried and returned to their respective home cages. In each trial, the time taken for the rat to reach the platform (escape latency in seconds), the length of the swim path (distance in centimeters), and the swimming speed (centimeters/second) were measured. The water maze training procedure began on experimental day 5, and the test was given for 5 consecutive days. On day 9, probe trials were conducted at 2 hr after completion of training in order to evaluate spatial bias. The rats were released from the quadrant opposite to where the platform was located and were allowed to swim for 90 sec in the absence of the platform. We measured the percentage of time that the rats spent in the area corresponding exactly to the area occupied by the platform during the training period. Considering the fact that rats are nocturnal animals, all MWM tests were performed during the dark cycle.


Comparative study of the effects of different growth hormone doses on growth and spatial performance of hypophysectomized rats.

Kwak MJ, Park HJ, Nam MH, Kwon OS, Park SY, Lee SY, Kim MJ, Kim SJ, Paik KH, Jin DK - J. Korean Med. Sci. (2009)

The automated tracking system (Smart v.20®) used in the Morris water maze (MWM) test. There is a circular platform in the one of the quadrants. The 3 quadrants except the target quadrant that contained the hidden platform were used for entry during each trial on a particular day. The escape latency (the time taken to reach the hidden platform), the length of the swim path, and the swimming speed were measured automatically.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2719187&req=5

Figure 1: The automated tracking system (Smart v.20®) used in the Morris water maze (MWM) test. There is a circular platform in the one of the quadrants. The 3 quadrants except the target quadrant that contained the hidden platform were used for entry during each trial on a particular day. The escape latency (the time taken to reach the hidden platform), the length of the swim path, and the swimming speed were measured automatically.
Mentions: Spatial learning and memory were evaluated in the GH-treated and control rats by using a modification of the MWM performance test (16). The MWM test is a memory test based on the capacity of animals to rescue themselves by reaching a hidden goal platform in a pool of water (16). The MWM test was conducted in a circular water-maze tank (diameter, 157 cm and height, 60 cm) filled with water (temperature, 24±1℃) that had been opacified by adding powdered milk. A transparent Plexiglass platform (diameter, 10 cm and height, 47 cm) was submerged 3 cm below the water surface and placed in the one of the quadrants. The maze was located in the center of a well-lit room and was surrounded by black curtains (placed at 50 cm from the pool periphery) that contained 4 distinct visual cues. The swimming path of each rat was monitored by an overhead video camera connected to a personal computer and was analyzed by an automated tracking system (Smart v.20®; Panlab SL, Barcelona, Spain) (Fig. 1). During the training period, the animals were required to locate the hidden platform, which remained in the same position, in relation to the external visual cues. The training was carried out in 1 block of 3 trials per day. To begin each trial, the rats were placed in the water facing the maze wall in one of the 3 quadrants except the target quadrant containing the hidden platform. The daily order of entry into individual quadrants was randomized. Each trial ended once the animals found the platform; if the rats were unable to find the platform within 90 sec, they were guided toward it by an experimenter. After a period of 30 sec on the platform, the rats were immediately re-placed at a different start position for the next trial. At the end of a training session, the rats were dried and returned to their respective home cages. In each trial, the time taken for the rat to reach the platform (escape latency in seconds), the length of the swim path (distance in centimeters), and the swimming speed (centimeters/second) were measured. The water maze training procedure began on experimental day 5, and the test was given for 5 consecutive days. On day 9, probe trials were conducted at 2 hr after completion of training in order to evaluate spatial bias. The rats were released from the quadrant opposite to where the platform was located and were allowed to swim for 90 sec in the absence of the platform. We measured the percentage of time that the rats spent in the area corresponding exactly to the area occupied by the platform during the training period. Considering the fact that rats are nocturnal animals, all MWM tests were performed during the dark cycle.

Bottom Line: Cognitive function was evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM) test.The results indicated that GH replacement therapy in HYPOX rats promoted an increase in the body weight and the width of the tibial growth plate in a dose-dependent manner.Therefore it is concluded that rhGH replacement therapy in HYPOX rats stimulates an increase in somatic growth in a dose-dependent manner and also has beneficial effects on cognitive functions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

ABSTRACT
This study was designed to examine the effects of recombinant human growth hormone replacement on somatic growth and cognitive function in hypophysectomized (HYPOX) female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats (5 per group) were randomized by weight to 3 experimental groups: group 1, administered 200 microg/kg of GH once daily for 9 days; group 2, administered 200 microg/kg of GH twice daily; and group 3, administered saline daily. Somatic growth was evaluated by measurement of body weight daily and of the width of the proximal tibial growth plate of the HYPOX rats. Cognitive function was evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM) test. The results indicated that GH replacement therapy in HYPOX rats promoted an increase in the body weight and the width of the tibial growth plate in a dose-dependent manner. On the third day of the MWM test, the escape latency in the GH-treated groups 1 and 2 was significantly shorter than that in the control rats (P<0.001 and P=0.032, respectively), suggesting that rhGH improved spatial memory acquisition in the MWM test. Therefore it is concluded that rhGH replacement therapy in HYPOX rats stimulates an increase in somatic growth in a dose-dependent manner and also has beneficial effects on cognitive functions.

Show MeSH