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Hippocampal volume reduction in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

Macey PM, Richard CA, Kumar R, Woo MA, Ogren JA, Avedissian C, Thompson PM, Harper RM - PLoS ONE (2009)

Bottom Line: Regional hippocampal volume variations, adjusted for cranial volume, were compared between groups based on t-tests of surface distances to the structure midline, with correction for multiple comparisons.Reduced regional volumes appeared in the left rostral hippocampus, bilateral areas in mid and mid-to-caudal regions, and a dorsal-caudal region, adjacent to the fimbria.The volume losses may result from hypoxic exposure following hypoventilation during sleep-disordered breathing, or from developmental or vascular consequences of genetic mutations in the syndrome.The sites of change overlap regions of abnormal functional responses to respiratory and autonomic challenges.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Nursing, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Children with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), a genetic disorder characterized by diminished drive to breathe during sleep and impaired CO(2) sensitivity, show brain structural and functional changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, with impaired responses in specific hippocampal regions, suggesting localized injury.We assessed total volume and regional variation in hippocampal surface morphology to identify areas affected in the syndrome. We studied 18 CCHS (mean age+/-std: 15.1+/-2.2 years; 8 female) and 32 healthy control (age 15.2+/-2.4 years; 14 female) children, and traced hippocampi on 1 mm(3) resolution T1-weighted scans, collected with a 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner. Regional hippocampal volume variations, adjusted for cranial volume, were compared between groups based on t-tests of surface distances to the structure midline, with correction for multiple comparisons. Significant tissue losses emerged in CCHS patients on the left side, with a trend for loss on the right; however, most areas affected on the left also showed equivalent right-sided volume reductions. Reduced regional volumes appeared in the left rostral hippocampus, bilateral areas in mid and mid-to-caudal regions, and a dorsal-caudal region, adjacent to the fimbria.The volume losses may result from hypoxic exposure following hypoventilation during sleep-disordered breathing, or from developmental or vascular consequences of genetic mutations in the syndrome. The sites of change overlap regions of abnormal functional responses to respiratory and autonomic challenges. Affected hippocampal areas have roles associated with memory, mood, and indirectly, autonomic regulation; impairments in these behavioral and physiological functions appear in CCHS.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Regions of significant hippocampal volume reduction in CCHS subjects relative to control subjects, color-coded according to significance level (scale bottom-right).Regions: a, b – CA1/CA2, near fimbria; c right rostral = CA1-CA3, dentate gyrus (DG); d left rostral = CA1-CA3, DG; e left ventral = CA1, subiculum; f = right subiculum; g, h = CA1; i, j = subiculum; k = CA1/CA2.
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pone-0006436-g001: Regions of significant hippocampal volume reduction in CCHS subjects relative to control subjects, color-coded according to significance level (scale bottom-right).Regions: a, b – CA1/CA2, near fimbria; c right rostral = CA1-CA3, dentate gyrus (DG); d left rostral = CA1-CA3, DG; e left ventral = CA1, subiculum; f = right subiculum; g, h = CA1; i, j = subiculum; k = CA1/CA2.

Mentions: Hippocampal morphometry revealed numerous regions of reduced volume in CCHS relative to control subjects (Fig. 1). After controlling for multiple comparisons using permutation testing, a significant overall effect was found in the left hippocampus (p = 0.01), but not the right (p = 0.1). The regions of significant difference showed moderate to large effect sizes (Fig. 2), with similar magnitudes on both sides; the lower significance on the right side implies greater variability. A number of areas showed no change (green regions in Fig. 2), with a few regions of CA1 and subiculum showing modest (and non-significant) negative effect sizes (blue regions, Fig. 2).


Hippocampal volume reduction in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

Macey PM, Richard CA, Kumar R, Woo MA, Ogren JA, Avedissian C, Thompson PM, Harper RM - PLoS ONE (2009)

Regions of significant hippocampal volume reduction in CCHS subjects relative to control subjects, color-coded according to significance level (scale bottom-right).Regions: a, b – CA1/CA2, near fimbria; c right rostral = CA1-CA3, dentate gyrus (DG); d left rostral = CA1-CA3, DG; e left ventral = CA1, subiculum; f = right subiculum; g, h = CA1; i, j = subiculum; k = CA1/CA2.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2713409&req=5

pone-0006436-g001: Regions of significant hippocampal volume reduction in CCHS subjects relative to control subjects, color-coded according to significance level (scale bottom-right).Regions: a, b – CA1/CA2, near fimbria; c right rostral = CA1-CA3, dentate gyrus (DG); d left rostral = CA1-CA3, DG; e left ventral = CA1, subiculum; f = right subiculum; g, h = CA1; i, j = subiculum; k = CA1/CA2.
Mentions: Hippocampal morphometry revealed numerous regions of reduced volume in CCHS relative to control subjects (Fig. 1). After controlling for multiple comparisons using permutation testing, a significant overall effect was found in the left hippocampus (p = 0.01), but not the right (p = 0.1). The regions of significant difference showed moderate to large effect sizes (Fig. 2), with similar magnitudes on both sides; the lower significance on the right side implies greater variability. A number of areas showed no change (green regions in Fig. 2), with a few regions of CA1 and subiculum showing modest (and non-significant) negative effect sizes (blue regions, Fig. 2).

Bottom Line: Regional hippocampal volume variations, adjusted for cranial volume, were compared between groups based on t-tests of surface distances to the structure midline, with correction for multiple comparisons.Reduced regional volumes appeared in the left rostral hippocampus, bilateral areas in mid and mid-to-caudal regions, and a dorsal-caudal region, adjacent to the fimbria.The volume losses may result from hypoxic exposure following hypoventilation during sleep-disordered breathing, or from developmental or vascular consequences of genetic mutations in the syndrome.The sites of change overlap regions of abnormal functional responses to respiratory and autonomic challenges.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Nursing, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Children with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), a genetic disorder characterized by diminished drive to breathe during sleep and impaired CO(2) sensitivity, show brain structural and functional changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, with impaired responses in specific hippocampal regions, suggesting localized injury.We assessed total volume and regional variation in hippocampal surface morphology to identify areas affected in the syndrome. We studied 18 CCHS (mean age+/-std: 15.1+/-2.2 years; 8 female) and 32 healthy control (age 15.2+/-2.4 years; 14 female) children, and traced hippocampi on 1 mm(3) resolution T1-weighted scans, collected with a 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner. Regional hippocampal volume variations, adjusted for cranial volume, were compared between groups based on t-tests of surface distances to the structure midline, with correction for multiple comparisons. Significant tissue losses emerged in CCHS patients on the left side, with a trend for loss on the right; however, most areas affected on the left also showed equivalent right-sided volume reductions. Reduced regional volumes appeared in the left rostral hippocampus, bilateral areas in mid and mid-to-caudal regions, and a dorsal-caudal region, adjacent to the fimbria.The volume losses may result from hypoxic exposure following hypoventilation during sleep-disordered breathing, or from developmental or vascular consequences of genetic mutations in the syndrome. The sites of change overlap regions of abnormal functional responses to respiratory and autonomic challenges. Affected hippocampal areas have roles associated with memory, mood, and indirectly, autonomic regulation; impairments in these behavioral and physiological functions appear in CCHS.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus