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Excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to left dorsal premotor cortex enhances motor consolidation of new skills.

Boyd LA, Linsdell MA - BMC Neurosci (2009)

Bottom Line: Following practice of skilled movements, changes continue to take place in the brain that both strengthen and modify memory for motor learning.Participants engaged in four days of continuous tracking practice that immediately followed either excitatory 5 HZ, inhibitory 1 HZ or control, sham rTMS.Our data support the hypothesis that PMd is important for continuous motor learning, specifically via off-line consolidation of learned motor behaviors.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physical Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. lara.boyd@ubc.ca

ABSTRACT

Background: Following practice of skilled movements, changes continue to take place in the brain that both strengthen and modify memory for motor learning. These changes represent motor memory consolidation a process whereby new memories are transformed from a fragile to a more permanent, robust and stable state. In the present study, the neural correlates of motor memory consolidation were probed using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd). Participants engaged in four days of continuous tracking practice that immediately followed either excitatory 5 HZ, inhibitory 1 HZ or control, sham rTMS. A delayed retention test assessed motor learning of repeated and random sequences of continuous movement; no rTMS was applied at retention.

Results: We discovered that 5 HZ excitatory rTMS to PMd stimulated motor memory consolidation as evidenced by off-line learning, whereas only memory stabilization was noted following 1 Hz inhibitory or sham stimulation.

Conclusion: Our data support the hypothesis that PMd is important for continuous motor learning, specifically via off-line consolidation of learned motor behaviors.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Twelve blocks of sequence tracking were performed across four days of practice (3 blocks per day; each block consisted of 10 trials of the 30 track). Root mean square error (RMSE) for repeated and random sequence tracking was calculated. A) RMSE for repeated sequences across practice and at the retention test. B) RMSE for random sequences across practice and at the retention test. Data are mean RMSE ± standard error of the mean (SEM).
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Figure 3: Twelve blocks of sequence tracking were performed across four days of practice (3 blocks per day; each block consisted of 10 trials of the 30 track). Root mean square error (RMSE) for repeated and random sequence tracking was calculated. A) RMSE for repeated sequences across practice and at the retention test. B) RMSE for random sequences across practice and at the retention test. Data are mean RMSE ± standard error of the mean (SEM).

Mentions: All groups improved performance on the repeating sequence across practice as demonstrated by a main effect of Block for repeating sequence tracking error (F(11, 286) = 15.23, p = .000; Figure 3A). In addition, non-specific improvements in tracking that reflect improved motor control during random sequence tracking also was demonstrated by a main effect of Block (F(11,286) = 11.31, p = .000; Figure 3B). There were no significant interactions for either random or repeated sequence tracking data over practice.


Excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to left dorsal premotor cortex enhances motor consolidation of new skills.

Boyd LA, Linsdell MA - BMC Neurosci (2009)

Twelve blocks of sequence tracking were performed across four days of practice (3 blocks per day; each block consisted of 10 trials of the 30 track). Root mean square error (RMSE) for repeated and random sequence tracking was calculated. A) RMSE for repeated sequences across practice and at the retention test. B) RMSE for random sequences across practice and at the retention test. Data are mean RMSE ± standard error of the mean (SEM).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2713248&req=5

Figure 3: Twelve blocks of sequence tracking were performed across four days of practice (3 blocks per day; each block consisted of 10 trials of the 30 track). Root mean square error (RMSE) for repeated and random sequence tracking was calculated. A) RMSE for repeated sequences across practice and at the retention test. B) RMSE for random sequences across practice and at the retention test. Data are mean RMSE ± standard error of the mean (SEM).
Mentions: All groups improved performance on the repeating sequence across practice as demonstrated by a main effect of Block for repeating sequence tracking error (F(11, 286) = 15.23, p = .000; Figure 3A). In addition, non-specific improvements in tracking that reflect improved motor control during random sequence tracking also was demonstrated by a main effect of Block (F(11,286) = 11.31, p = .000; Figure 3B). There were no significant interactions for either random or repeated sequence tracking data over practice.

Bottom Line: Following practice of skilled movements, changes continue to take place in the brain that both strengthen and modify memory for motor learning.Participants engaged in four days of continuous tracking practice that immediately followed either excitatory 5 HZ, inhibitory 1 HZ or control, sham rTMS.Our data support the hypothesis that PMd is important for continuous motor learning, specifically via off-line consolidation of learned motor behaviors.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physical Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. lara.boyd@ubc.ca

ABSTRACT

Background: Following practice of skilled movements, changes continue to take place in the brain that both strengthen and modify memory for motor learning. These changes represent motor memory consolidation a process whereby new memories are transformed from a fragile to a more permanent, robust and stable state. In the present study, the neural correlates of motor memory consolidation were probed using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd). Participants engaged in four days of continuous tracking practice that immediately followed either excitatory 5 HZ, inhibitory 1 HZ or control, sham rTMS. A delayed retention test assessed motor learning of repeated and random sequences of continuous movement; no rTMS was applied at retention.

Results: We discovered that 5 HZ excitatory rTMS to PMd stimulated motor memory consolidation as evidenced by off-line learning, whereas only memory stabilization was noted following 1 Hz inhibitory or sham stimulation.

Conclusion: Our data support the hypothesis that PMd is important for continuous motor learning, specifically via off-line consolidation of learned motor behaviors.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus