Limits...
Excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to left dorsal premotor cortex enhances motor consolidation of new skills.

Boyd LA, Linsdell MA - BMC Neurosci (2009)

Bottom Line: Following practice of skilled movements, changes continue to take place in the brain that both strengthen and modify memory for motor learning.Participants engaged in four days of continuous tracking practice that immediately followed either excitatory 5 HZ, inhibitory 1 HZ or control, sham rTMS.Our data support the hypothesis that PMd is important for continuous motor learning, specifically via off-line consolidation of learned motor behaviors.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physical Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. lara.boyd@ubc.ca

ABSTRACT

Background: Following practice of skilled movements, changes continue to take place in the brain that both strengthen and modify memory for motor learning. These changes represent motor memory consolidation a process whereby new memories are transformed from a fragile to a more permanent, robust and stable state. In the present study, the neural correlates of motor memory consolidation were probed using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd). Participants engaged in four days of continuous tracking practice that immediately followed either excitatory 5 HZ, inhibitory 1 HZ or control, sham rTMS. A delayed retention test assessed motor learning of repeated and random sequences of continuous movement; no rTMS was applied at retention.

Results: We discovered that 5 HZ excitatory rTMS to PMd stimulated motor memory consolidation as evidenced by off-line learning, whereas only memory stabilization was noted following 1 Hz inhibitory or sham stimulation.

Conclusion: Our data support the hypothesis that PMd is important for continuous motor learning, specifically via off-line consolidation of learned motor behaviors.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Illustration of the sterotaxic system and markers that guided TMS coil placement. Brainsight™ was used to locate primary motor cortex (M1) for resting motor threshold determination and also to subsequently for coil placement over PMd for rTMS. Markers were placed on day 1 of testing to ensure accuracy and repeatability of coil placement and rTMS application across days.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2713248&req=5

Figure 2: Illustration of the sterotaxic system and markers that guided TMS coil placement. Brainsight™ was used to locate primary motor cortex (M1) for resting motor threshold determination and also to subsequently for coil placement over PMd for rTMS. Markers were placed on day 1 of testing to ensure accuracy and repeatability of coil placement and rTMS application across days.

Mentions: Participants were instructed to remain relaxed throughout the application of rTMS. Surface electromyography (EMG) from participants' right flexor digitorum muscle was monitored through the output screen attached to the transcranial magnetic stimulator (Magstim Super Rapid2, Magstim Company, Ltd.). Determination of the location of left primary motor cortex (M1) for resting motor threshold was performed using Brainsight. M1 was identified using the axial scans by locating the "hand knob" and hook MRI images.[30-34] Resting motor threshold (RMT) was determined for each participant, as the percentage of maximal stimulator output to evoke a response of ≥ 50 μV in 5 of 10 trials. The location and trajectory of the coil for this spot was marked using Brainsight™ to minimize variability across subsequent trials and days (Figure 2). Next, the left dorsal pre-motor (PMd) area was marked in Brainsight™ by moving one gyrus forward from the flexor digitorum "hot spot" identified during determination of RMT. The location of PMd was confirmed as the posterior aspect of the middle frontal gyrus (Figure 1).[21,33-38]


Excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to left dorsal premotor cortex enhances motor consolidation of new skills.

Boyd LA, Linsdell MA - BMC Neurosci (2009)

Illustration of the sterotaxic system and markers that guided TMS coil placement. Brainsight™ was used to locate primary motor cortex (M1) for resting motor threshold determination and also to subsequently for coil placement over PMd for rTMS. Markers were placed on day 1 of testing to ensure accuracy and repeatability of coil placement and rTMS application across days.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2713248&req=5

Figure 2: Illustration of the sterotaxic system and markers that guided TMS coil placement. Brainsight™ was used to locate primary motor cortex (M1) for resting motor threshold determination and also to subsequently for coil placement over PMd for rTMS. Markers were placed on day 1 of testing to ensure accuracy and repeatability of coil placement and rTMS application across days.
Mentions: Participants were instructed to remain relaxed throughout the application of rTMS. Surface electromyography (EMG) from participants' right flexor digitorum muscle was monitored through the output screen attached to the transcranial magnetic stimulator (Magstim Super Rapid2, Magstim Company, Ltd.). Determination of the location of left primary motor cortex (M1) for resting motor threshold was performed using Brainsight. M1 was identified using the axial scans by locating the "hand knob" and hook MRI images.[30-34] Resting motor threshold (RMT) was determined for each participant, as the percentage of maximal stimulator output to evoke a response of ≥ 50 μV in 5 of 10 trials. The location and trajectory of the coil for this spot was marked using Brainsight™ to minimize variability across subsequent trials and days (Figure 2). Next, the left dorsal pre-motor (PMd) area was marked in Brainsight™ by moving one gyrus forward from the flexor digitorum "hot spot" identified during determination of RMT. The location of PMd was confirmed as the posterior aspect of the middle frontal gyrus (Figure 1).[21,33-38]

Bottom Line: Following practice of skilled movements, changes continue to take place in the brain that both strengthen and modify memory for motor learning.Participants engaged in four days of continuous tracking practice that immediately followed either excitatory 5 HZ, inhibitory 1 HZ or control, sham rTMS.Our data support the hypothesis that PMd is important for continuous motor learning, specifically via off-line consolidation of learned motor behaviors.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physical Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. lara.boyd@ubc.ca

ABSTRACT

Background: Following practice of skilled movements, changes continue to take place in the brain that both strengthen and modify memory for motor learning. These changes represent motor memory consolidation a process whereby new memories are transformed from a fragile to a more permanent, robust and stable state. In the present study, the neural correlates of motor memory consolidation were probed using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd). Participants engaged in four days of continuous tracking practice that immediately followed either excitatory 5 HZ, inhibitory 1 HZ or control, sham rTMS. A delayed retention test assessed motor learning of repeated and random sequences of continuous movement; no rTMS was applied at retention.

Results: We discovered that 5 HZ excitatory rTMS to PMd stimulated motor memory consolidation as evidenced by off-line learning, whereas only memory stabilization was noted following 1 Hz inhibitory or sham stimulation.

Conclusion: Our data support the hypothesis that PMd is important for continuous motor learning, specifically via off-line consolidation of learned motor behaviors.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus