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Animal-based folk remedies sold in public markets in Crato and Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará, Brazil.

Ferreira FS, Brito SV, Ribeiro SC, Saraiva AA, Almeida WO, Alves RR - BMC Complement Altern Med (2009)

Bottom Line: We calculated the Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) to determine the consensus over which species are effective for particular ailments, as well as the species Use Value (UV) to determine the extent of utilization of each species.The composition of the local fauna, the popular culture, and commercial considerations are factors that maintain and drive the market for therapeutic animal products - and the lack of monitoring and regulation of this commerce is worrisome from a conservationist perspective.A detailed knowledge of the fauna utilized in alternative medicine is fundamental to the conservation and rational use of the Brazilian fauna.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Universidade Regional do Cariri, Departamento de Química Biológica, Crato, CE, Brazil. ferreira_fs@yahoo.com.br

ABSTRACT

Background: Human communities consistently develop a detailed knowledge of the therapeutical and medicinal properties of the local flora and fauna, and these folk remedies often substitute medicines produced by the pharmaceutical industry. Animals (and their derived products) are essential ingredients in the preparation of many traditional remedies. The present work prepared an inventory of the animals sold in public markets in the cities of Crato and Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará State, Brazil.

Methods: Information was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires in interviews held with 27 merchants of medicinal animals (18 in the municipality of Juazeiro do Norte [11 men and 7 women] and 9 people in the municipality of Crato [6 men and 3 women]). We calculated the Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) to determine the consensus over which species are effective for particular ailments, as well as the species Use Value (UV) to determine the extent of utilization of each species.

Results: A total of 31 animal species, distributed among 21 families were identified as being used medicinally. The taxa most represented were: insects (8 species), mammals (7), fish (5), reptiles (5) and birds (4). The animals sold in these markets are used to treat a total of 24 ailments, with rheumatism, asthma, and inflammations having the largest numbers of citations. Three species not previously reported as having medicinal use were encountered: Leporinus steindachneri (utilized for treating cholesterol problems), Gryllus assimilis (utilized in treating urinary infections), and Phrynops tuberosus (used to treat asthma, rheumatism and bruises).

Conclusion: The composition of the local fauna, the popular culture, and commercial considerations are factors that maintain and drive the market for therapeutic animal products - and the lack of monitoring and regulation of this commerce is worrisome from a conservationist perspective. A detailed knowledge of the fauna utilized in alternative medicine is fundamental to the conservation and rational use of the Brazilian fauna.

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Examples of animal products used as remedies in that are sold in public markets in Crato and Juazeiro do Norte. A: Liver powder of Coragyps atratus, B: Hoof of Mazama sp., C: Dried Seahorses (Hippocampus reidi), D: Tail of Euphractus sexcinctus, E: Rattle of Crotalus durissus, F: Fat of Tupinambis merianae (Photos: Samuel C Ribeiro).
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Figure 3: Examples of animal products used as remedies in that are sold in public markets in Crato and Juazeiro do Norte. A: Liver powder of Coragyps atratus, B: Hoof of Mazama sp., C: Dried Seahorses (Hippocampus reidi), D: Tail of Euphractus sexcinctus, E: Rattle of Crotalus durissus, F: Fat of Tupinambis merianae (Photos: Samuel C Ribeiro).

Mentions: Various animal parts and products are used in the preparation of folk medicines, including: honey, wax, urine, horns, viscera (stomach and liver), fat, marrow, skin, feathers, legs, tails, navels, and hooves (Figure 3). Small animals such as Dinoponera quadriceps, Tropidurus hispidus, Crotophaga ani, O. reticulatus and H. reidi may be used whole. Two of the most widely used products are honey produced by Apis mellifera and the body fat of T. merianae.


Animal-based folk remedies sold in public markets in Crato and Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará, Brazil.

Ferreira FS, Brito SV, Ribeiro SC, Saraiva AA, Almeida WO, Alves RR - BMC Complement Altern Med (2009)

Examples of animal products used as remedies in that are sold in public markets in Crato and Juazeiro do Norte. A: Liver powder of Coragyps atratus, B: Hoof of Mazama sp., C: Dried Seahorses (Hippocampus reidi), D: Tail of Euphractus sexcinctus, E: Rattle of Crotalus durissus, F: Fat of Tupinambis merianae (Photos: Samuel C Ribeiro).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2698880&req=5

Figure 3: Examples of animal products used as remedies in that are sold in public markets in Crato and Juazeiro do Norte. A: Liver powder of Coragyps atratus, B: Hoof of Mazama sp., C: Dried Seahorses (Hippocampus reidi), D: Tail of Euphractus sexcinctus, E: Rattle of Crotalus durissus, F: Fat of Tupinambis merianae (Photos: Samuel C Ribeiro).
Mentions: Various animal parts and products are used in the preparation of folk medicines, including: honey, wax, urine, horns, viscera (stomach and liver), fat, marrow, skin, feathers, legs, tails, navels, and hooves (Figure 3). Small animals such as Dinoponera quadriceps, Tropidurus hispidus, Crotophaga ani, O. reticulatus and H. reidi may be used whole. Two of the most widely used products are honey produced by Apis mellifera and the body fat of T. merianae.

Bottom Line: We calculated the Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) to determine the consensus over which species are effective for particular ailments, as well as the species Use Value (UV) to determine the extent of utilization of each species.The composition of the local fauna, the popular culture, and commercial considerations are factors that maintain and drive the market for therapeutic animal products - and the lack of monitoring and regulation of this commerce is worrisome from a conservationist perspective.A detailed knowledge of the fauna utilized in alternative medicine is fundamental to the conservation and rational use of the Brazilian fauna.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Universidade Regional do Cariri, Departamento de Química Biológica, Crato, CE, Brazil. ferreira_fs@yahoo.com.br

ABSTRACT

Background: Human communities consistently develop a detailed knowledge of the therapeutical and medicinal properties of the local flora and fauna, and these folk remedies often substitute medicines produced by the pharmaceutical industry. Animals (and their derived products) are essential ingredients in the preparation of many traditional remedies. The present work prepared an inventory of the animals sold in public markets in the cities of Crato and Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará State, Brazil.

Methods: Information was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires in interviews held with 27 merchants of medicinal animals (18 in the municipality of Juazeiro do Norte [11 men and 7 women] and 9 people in the municipality of Crato [6 men and 3 women]). We calculated the Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) to determine the consensus over which species are effective for particular ailments, as well as the species Use Value (UV) to determine the extent of utilization of each species.

Results: A total of 31 animal species, distributed among 21 families were identified as being used medicinally. The taxa most represented were: insects (8 species), mammals (7), fish (5), reptiles (5) and birds (4). The animals sold in these markets are used to treat a total of 24 ailments, with rheumatism, asthma, and inflammations having the largest numbers of citations. Three species not previously reported as having medicinal use were encountered: Leporinus steindachneri (utilized for treating cholesterol problems), Gryllus assimilis (utilized in treating urinary infections), and Phrynops tuberosus (used to treat asthma, rheumatism and bruises).

Conclusion: The composition of the local fauna, the popular culture, and commercial considerations are factors that maintain and drive the market for therapeutic animal products - and the lack of monitoring and regulation of this commerce is worrisome from a conservationist perspective. A detailed knowledge of the fauna utilized in alternative medicine is fundamental to the conservation and rational use of the Brazilian fauna.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus