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No detectable maternal effects of elevated CO(2) on Arabidopsis thaliana over 15 generations.

Teng N, Jin B, Wang Q, Hao H, Ceulemans R, Kuang T, Lin J - PLoS ONE (2009)

Bottom Line: We found that within an individual generation, elevated CO(2) significantly advanced plant flowering, increased photosynthetic rate, increased the size and number of starch grains per chloroplast, reduced stomatal density, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate, and resulted in a higher reproductive mass.In addition, a reciprocal sowing experiment demonstrated that elevated CO(2) did not produce detectable maternal effects on the offspring after fifteen generations.Taken together, these results suggested that the maternal effects of elevated CO(2) failed to extend to the offspring due to the potential lack of genetic variation for CO(2) responsiveness, and future plants may not evolve specific adaptations to elevated CO(2) concentrations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Photosynthesis and Environmental Molecular Physiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Maternal environment has been demonstrated to produce considerable impact on offspring growth. However, few studies have been carried out to investigate multi-generational maternal effects of elevated CO(2) on plant growth and development. Here we present the first report on the responses of plant reproductive, photosynthetic, and cellular characteristics to elevated CO(2) over 15 generations using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system. We found that within an individual generation, elevated CO(2) significantly advanced plant flowering, increased photosynthetic rate, increased the size and number of starch grains per chloroplast, reduced stomatal density, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate, and resulted in a higher reproductive mass. Elevated CO(2) did not significantly influence silique length and number of seeds per silique. Across 15 generations grown at elevated CO(2) concentrations, however, there were no significant differences in these traits. In addition, a reciprocal sowing experiment demonstrated that elevated CO(2) did not produce detectable maternal effects on the offspring after fifteen generations. Taken together, these results suggested that the maternal effects of elevated CO(2) failed to extend to the offspring due to the potential lack of genetic variation for CO(2) responsiveness, and future plants may not evolve specific adaptations to elevated CO(2) concentrations.

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Effects of elevated CO2 on leaf chloroplast ultrastructure during different generations.Plants were grown in elevated CO2 in generations 1 (A), 8 (B), and 15 (C), and under ambient CO2 in generations 1 (D), 8 (E), and 15 (F). Note that more and larger starch grains were observed in chloroplasts of elevated-CO2 grown leaves than in chloroplasts of ambient-CO2 grown leaves in any of the three generations. However, there was no significant difference in the number and size of starch grains in either treatment among the three generations. Scale bar = 1 µm.
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pone-0006035-g004: Effects of elevated CO2 on leaf chloroplast ultrastructure during different generations.Plants were grown in elevated CO2 in generations 1 (A), 8 (B), and 15 (C), and under ambient CO2 in generations 1 (D), 8 (E), and 15 (F). Note that more and larger starch grains were observed in chloroplasts of elevated-CO2 grown leaves than in chloroplasts of ambient-CO2 grown leaves in any of the three generations. However, there was no significant difference in the number and size of starch grains in either treatment among the three generations. Scale bar = 1 µm.

Mentions: Relative to ambient CO2, elevated CO2 concentrations on average significantly increased the number of starch grains per chloroplast profile and area per starch grain by 42.4% and 51.9%, respectively, in leaves of plants grown in generations 1, 8, and 15 and in reciprocal sowing experiments (Table 3 and Figure 4). However, each of the traits did not change significantly among these generations when exposed to either ambient CO2 or elevated CO2 (Table 3 and Figure 4). For example, the number of starch grains per chloroplast profile averaged around 1.95 at ambient CO2 concentrations, ranging from 1.87 to 2.05, and around 2.77 with elevated CO2, ranging from 2.68 to 2.87. The change in area per starch grain also followed a similar pattern.


No detectable maternal effects of elevated CO(2) on Arabidopsis thaliana over 15 generations.

Teng N, Jin B, Wang Q, Hao H, Ceulemans R, Kuang T, Lin J - PLoS ONE (2009)

Effects of elevated CO2 on leaf chloroplast ultrastructure during different generations.Plants were grown in elevated CO2 in generations 1 (A), 8 (B), and 15 (C), and under ambient CO2 in generations 1 (D), 8 (E), and 15 (F). Note that more and larger starch grains were observed in chloroplasts of elevated-CO2 grown leaves than in chloroplasts of ambient-CO2 grown leaves in any of the three generations. However, there was no significant difference in the number and size of starch grains in either treatment among the three generations. Scale bar = 1 µm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2698214&req=5

pone-0006035-g004: Effects of elevated CO2 on leaf chloroplast ultrastructure during different generations.Plants were grown in elevated CO2 in generations 1 (A), 8 (B), and 15 (C), and under ambient CO2 in generations 1 (D), 8 (E), and 15 (F). Note that more and larger starch grains were observed in chloroplasts of elevated-CO2 grown leaves than in chloroplasts of ambient-CO2 grown leaves in any of the three generations. However, there was no significant difference in the number and size of starch grains in either treatment among the three generations. Scale bar = 1 µm.
Mentions: Relative to ambient CO2, elevated CO2 concentrations on average significantly increased the number of starch grains per chloroplast profile and area per starch grain by 42.4% and 51.9%, respectively, in leaves of plants grown in generations 1, 8, and 15 and in reciprocal sowing experiments (Table 3 and Figure 4). However, each of the traits did not change significantly among these generations when exposed to either ambient CO2 or elevated CO2 (Table 3 and Figure 4). For example, the number of starch grains per chloroplast profile averaged around 1.95 at ambient CO2 concentrations, ranging from 1.87 to 2.05, and around 2.77 with elevated CO2, ranging from 2.68 to 2.87. The change in area per starch grain also followed a similar pattern.

Bottom Line: We found that within an individual generation, elevated CO(2) significantly advanced plant flowering, increased photosynthetic rate, increased the size and number of starch grains per chloroplast, reduced stomatal density, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate, and resulted in a higher reproductive mass.In addition, a reciprocal sowing experiment demonstrated that elevated CO(2) did not produce detectable maternal effects on the offspring after fifteen generations.Taken together, these results suggested that the maternal effects of elevated CO(2) failed to extend to the offspring due to the potential lack of genetic variation for CO(2) responsiveness, and future plants may not evolve specific adaptations to elevated CO(2) concentrations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Photosynthesis and Environmental Molecular Physiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Maternal environment has been demonstrated to produce considerable impact on offspring growth. However, few studies have been carried out to investigate multi-generational maternal effects of elevated CO(2) on plant growth and development. Here we present the first report on the responses of plant reproductive, photosynthetic, and cellular characteristics to elevated CO(2) over 15 generations using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system. We found that within an individual generation, elevated CO(2) significantly advanced plant flowering, increased photosynthetic rate, increased the size and number of starch grains per chloroplast, reduced stomatal density, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate, and resulted in a higher reproductive mass. Elevated CO(2) did not significantly influence silique length and number of seeds per silique. Across 15 generations grown at elevated CO(2) concentrations, however, there were no significant differences in these traits. In addition, a reciprocal sowing experiment demonstrated that elevated CO(2) did not produce detectable maternal effects on the offspring after fifteen generations. Taken together, these results suggested that the maternal effects of elevated CO(2) failed to extend to the offspring due to the potential lack of genetic variation for CO(2) responsiveness, and future plants may not evolve specific adaptations to elevated CO(2) concentrations.

Show MeSH