Limits...
Targeted molecular imaging.

Kim EE - Korean J Radiol (2003 Oct-Dec)

Bottom Line: Molecular imaging aims to visualize the cellular and molecular processes occurring in living tissues, and for the imaging of specific molecules in vivo, the development of reporter probes and dedicated imaging equipment is most important.Reporter genes can be used to monitor the delivery and magnitude of therapeutic gene transfer, and the time variation involved.Imaging technologies such as micro-PET, SPECT, MRI and CT, as well as optical imaging systems, are able to non-invasively detect, measure, and report the simultaneous expression of multiple meaningful genes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology and Medicine, Center for Metabolic Imaging, Nuclear Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. ekim@di.mdacc.tmc.edu

ABSTRACT
Molecular imaging aims to visualize the cellular and molecular processes occurring in living tissues, and for the imaging of specific molecules in vivo, the development of reporter probes and dedicated imaging equipment is most important. Reporter genes can be used to monitor the delivery and magnitude of therapeutic gene transfer, and the time variation involved. Imaging technologies such as micro-PET, SPECT, MRI and CT, as well as optical imaging systems, are able to non-invasively detect, measure, and report the simultaneous expression of multiple meaningful genes. It is believed that recent advances in reporter probes, imaging technologies and gene transfer strategies will enhance the effectiveness of gene therapy trials.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Planar whole-body images of a breast tumor (arrows) in a rat demonstrate 99mTc-EC-Annexin V uptake after paclitaxel treatment.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2698097&req=5

Figure 4: Planar whole-body images of a breast tumor (arrows) in a rat demonstrate 99mTc-EC-Annexin V uptake after paclitaxel treatment.

Mentions: Apoptosis, the process of programmed cell death critical for organ development, tissue homeostasis, and the removal of defective cells without causing concomitant inflammatory response. It depends on the multiple extracellular signals, integration and amplification of signals, and activation of effector proteases called caspases. Apoptosis can be decreased in cancer, autoimmune disease and viral infection, or increased in AIDS, ischemia, stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. There are three pathways of apoptosis (37). The first one involves signaling of a death receptor (eg, Fas or tumor necrosis factor) which then activates caspases. The second one is initiated by the withdrawal of growth factor which leads to the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria followed by caspase activation, a process controlled by the Bcl-2 protein family. Third one is induced by DNA damage that triggers the p53 pathway of caspase activation. Caspase-mediated proteolysis involving cellular changes such as cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation, is irreversible. Caspase inhibitors may be useful for ischemia, rejection or autoimmune diseases; caspase activator, p53, may help induce efficient killing. During the terminal stages of apoptosis, intracellular phosphatidylserine (PS) is expressed on the cell surface and in annexin contained in tumor cells; annexin V binds to cells with abnormally expressed PS. Tc-99m HYNIC or EC-annexin V has been used to image the apoptosis occurring in cancer and in transplant rejection (38) (Fig. 4).


Targeted molecular imaging.

Kim EE - Korean J Radiol (2003 Oct-Dec)

Planar whole-body images of a breast tumor (arrows) in a rat demonstrate 99mTc-EC-Annexin V uptake after paclitaxel treatment.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2698097&req=5

Figure 4: Planar whole-body images of a breast tumor (arrows) in a rat demonstrate 99mTc-EC-Annexin V uptake after paclitaxel treatment.
Mentions: Apoptosis, the process of programmed cell death critical for organ development, tissue homeostasis, and the removal of defective cells without causing concomitant inflammatory response. It depends on the multiple extracellular signals, integration and amplification of signals, and activation of effector proteases called caspases. Apoptosis can be decreased in cancer, autoimmune disease and viral infection, or increased in AIDS, ischemia, stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. There are three pathways of apoptosis (37). The first one involves signaling of a death receptor (eg, Fas or tumor necrosis factor) which then activates caspases. The second one is initiated by the withdrawal of growth factor which leads to the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria followed by caspase activation, a process controlled by the Bcl-2 protein family. Third one is induced by DNA damage that triggers the p53 pathway of caspase activation. Caspase-mediated proteolysis involving cellular changes such as cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation, is irreversible. Caspase inhibitors may be useful for ischemia, rejection or autoimmune diseases; caspase activator, p53, may help induce efficient killing. During the terminal stages of apoptosis, intracellular phosphatidylserine (PS) is expressed on the cell surface and in annexin contained in tumor cells; annexin V binds to cells with abnormally expressed PS. Tc-99m HYNIC or EC-annexin V has been used to image the apoptosis occurring in cancer and in transplant rejection (38) (Fig. 4).

Bottom Line: Molecular imaging aims to visualize the cellular and molecular processes occurring in living tissues, and for the imaging of specific molecules in vivo, the development of reporter probes and dedicated imaging equipment is most important.Reporter genes can be used to monitor the delivery and magnitude of therapeutic gene transfer, and the time variation involved.Imaging technologies such as micro-PET, SPECT, MRI and CT, as well as optical imaging systems, are able to non-invasively detect, measure, and report the simultaneous expression of multiple meaningful genes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology and Medicine, Center for Metabolic Imaging, Nuclear Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. ekim@di.mdacc.tmc.edu

ABSTRACT
Molecular imaging aims to visualize the cellular and molecular processes occurring in living tissues, and for the imaging of specific molecules in vivo, the development of reporter probes and dedicated imaging equipment is most important. Reporter genes can be used to monitor the delivery and magnitude of therapeutic gene transfer, and the time variation involved. Imaging technologies such as micro-PET, SPECT, MRI and CT, as well as optical imaging systems, are able to non-invasively detect, measure, and report the simultaneous expression of multiple meaningful genes. It is believed that recent advances in reporter probes, imaging technologies and gene transfer strategies will enhance the effectiveness of gene therapy trials.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus