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A simplified method to distinguish farmed (Salmo salar) from wild salmon: fatty acid ratios versus astaxanthin chiral isomers.

Megdal PA, Craft NA, Handelman GJ - Lipids (2009)

Bottom Line: We also compared the GC method with the currently approved FDA (United States Food and Drug Administration) technique that uses analysis of carotenoid optical isomers and found 100% agreement.Statistical validation (n = 30) was obtained showing elevated 18:2n-6 (z = 4.56; P = 0.0001) and decreased 20:1n-9 (z = 1.79; P = 0.07) in farmed samples.GC analysis for determining the origin of North American salmon compared favorably with the astaxanthin isomer technique used by the FDA and showed that the fatty acid 18:2n-6 was the key indicator associated with the origin of these salmon.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, USA. pmegdal@efasciencesinc.com

ABSTRACT
Mislabeling of farmed and wild salmon sold in markets has been reported. Since the fatty acid content of fish may influence human health and thus consumer behavior, a simplified method to identify wild and farmed salmon is necessary. Several studies have demonstrated differences in lipid profiles between farmed and wild salmon but no data exists validating these differences with government-approved methods to accurately identify the origin of these fish. Current methods are both expensive and complicated, using highly specialized equipment not commonly available. Therefore, we developed a testing protocol using gas chromatography (GC), to determine the origin of salmon using fatty acid profiles. We also compared the GC method with the currently approved FDA (United States Food and Drug Administration) technique that uses analysis of carotenoid optical isomers and found 100% agreement. Statistical validation (n = 30) was obtained showing elevated 18:2n-6 (z = 4.56; P = 0.0001) and decreased 20:1n-9 (z = 1.79; P = 0.07) in farmed samples. The method is suitable for wide adaptation because fatty acid methyl ester analysis is a well-established procedure in labs that conduct analysis of lipid composition and food constituents. GC analysis for determining the origin of North American salmon compared favorably with the astaxanthin isomer technique used by the FDA and showed that the fatty acid 18:2n-6 was the key indicator associated with the origin of these salmon.

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The criterion value of 6.1 separates farmed from wild salmon samples by the percentage of 18:2n-6. Note that one sample of the wild salmon appears very close to the criterion value. See text for explanation
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Fig4: The criterion value of 6.1 separates farmed from wild salmon samples by the percentage of 18:2n-6. Note that one sample of the wild salmon appears very close to the criterion value. See text for explanation

Mentions: The percentage of LNA was plotted separately for all samples in Fig. 4; one sample, classified as wild by the LNA criterion, had a somewhat higher LNA content (4.3%) than the other 14 wild samples. This sample had an unusual carotenoid profile as well, intermediate between what is typically seen for wild and farmed salmon. Based on both the LNA content and carotenoid profile, we hypothesize that this sample is a farmed salmon that escaped and consumed a natural diet in the wild for an extended period.Fig. 4


A simplified method to distinguish farmed (Salmo salar) from wild salmon: fatty acid ratios versus astaxanthin chiral isomers.

Megdal PA, Craft NA, Handelman GJ - Lipids (2009)

The criterion value of 6.1 separates farmed from wild salmon samples by the percentage of 18:2n-6. Note that one sample of the wild salmon appears very close to the criterion value. See text for explanation
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2697370&req=5

Fig4: The criterion value of 6.1 separates farmed from wild salmon samples by the percentage of 18:2n-6. Note that one sample of the wild salmon appears very close to the criterion value. See text for explanation
Mentions: The percentage of LNA was plotted separately for all samples in Fig. 4; one sample, classified as wild by the LNA criterion, had a somewhat higher LNA content (4.3%) than the other 14 wild samples. This sample had an unusual carotenoid profile as well, intermediate between what is typically seen for wild and farmed salmon. Based on both the LNA content and carotenoid profile, we hypothesize that this sample is a farmed salmon that escaped and consumed a natural diet in the wild for an extended period.Fig. 4

Bottom Line: We also compared the GC method with the currently approved FDA (United States Food and Drug Administration) technique that uses analysis of carotenoid optical isomers and found 100% agreement.Statistical validation (n = 30) was obtained showing elevated 18:2n-6 (z = 4.56; P = 0.0001) and decreased 20:1n-9 (z = 1.79; P = 0.07) in farmed samples.GC analysis for determining the origin of North American salmon compared favorably with the astaxanthin isomer technique used by the FDA and showed that the fatty acid 18:2n-6 was the key indicator associated with the origin of these salmon.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, USA. pmegdal@efasciencesinc.com

ABSTRACT
Mislabeling of farmed and wild salmon sold in markets has been reported. Since the fatty acid content of fish may influence human health and thus consumer behavior, a simplified method to identify wild and farmed salmon is necessary. Several studies have demonstrated differences in lipid profiles between farmed and wild salmon but no data exists validating these differences with government-approved methods to accurately identify the origin of these fish. Current methods are both expensive and complicated, using highly specialized equipment not commonly available. Therefore, we developed a testing protocol using gas chromatography (GC), to determine the origin of salmon using fatty acid profiles. We also compared the GC method with the currently approved FDA (United States Food and Drug Administration) technique that uses analysis of carotenoid optical isomers and found 100% agreement. Statistical validation (n = 30) was obtained showing elevated 18:2n-6 (z = 4.56; P = 0.0001) and decreased 20:1n-9 (z = 1.79; P = 0.07) in farmed samples. The method is suitable for wide adaptation because fatty acid methyl ester analysis is a well-established procedure in labs that conduct analysis of lipid composition and food constituents. GC analysis for determining the origin of North American salmon compared favorably with the astaxanthin isomer technique used by the FDA and showed that the fatty acid 18:2n-6 was the key indicator associated with the origin of these salmon.

Show MeSH