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Respiratory muscles training in COPD patients.

Crisafulli E, Costi S, Fabbri LM, Clini EM - Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis (2007)

Bottom Line: It is known that respiratory muscles undergo adaptation in response to overload stimuli during exercise training in stable COPD patients, thus resulting in significant increase of respiratory muscle function as well as the individual's improvements.Frequency, duration, and intensity of exercise must be carefully considered for a training effect.In particular, while it seems that IMT is slightly superior to EMT in providing additional benefits other than respiratory muscle function such as a reduction in dyspnea, both the effects and the safety of EMT is still to be definitively elucidated in patients with COPD.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Modena-Reggio Emilia, Deparmentt of Pulmonary Rehabilitation, Ospedale Villa Pineta, Pavullo (MO), Italy.

ABSTRACT
It is known that respiratory muscles undergo adaptation in response to overload stimuli during exercise training in stable COPD patients, thus resulting in significant increase of respiratory muscle function as well as the individual's improvements. The present article reviews the most updated evidence with regard to the use of respiratory muscle training (RMT) methods in COPD patients. Basically, three types of RMT (resistive training, pressure threshold loading, and normocapnic hyperpnea) have been reported. Frequency, duration, and intensity of exercise must be carefully considered for a training effect. In contrast with the plentitude of existing data inherent to inspiratory muscle training (IMT), literature is still lacking in showing clinical and physiological studies related to expiratory muscle training (EMT). In particular, while it seems that IMT is slightly superior to EMT in providing additional benefits other than respiratory muscle function such as a reduction in dyspnea, both the effects and the safety of EMT is still to be definitively elucidated in patients with COPD.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

A threshold loading device practically adopted for inspiratory muscle training.
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f1-copd-2-19: A threshold loading device practically adopted for inspiratory muscle training.

Mentions: Threshold loading has been shown to induce improvements in strength (Larson et al 1988; Lotters et al 2002), maximum rate of muscle shortening (Romer et al 2002; Villafranca et al 1998; Romer and McConnell 2003), maximum power output (Lisboa et al 1994; Villafranca et al 1998; Romer and McConnell 2003), and muscle endurance (Lisboa et al 1994; Weiner et al 2004). Due to its flow independence, PTL training can be undertaken without monitoring the individual’s breathing pattern. In addition, PTL using a device with a mechanical poppet valve is both portable and easy to use, with evidence of efficacy when implemented in a domiciliary setting, as well as in long-term use (see also Figure 1). To cut short, although it appears to be as effective as RL, PTL (probably due to its simplicity, reliability and “user-friendliness”) has been implemented most widely, especially using the poppet valve method.


Respiratory muscles training in COPD patients.

Crisafulli E, Costi S, Fabbri LM, Clini EM - Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis (2007)

A threshold loading device practically adopted for inspiratory muscle training.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2692111&req=5

f1-copd-2-19: A threshold loading device practically adopted for inspiratory muscle training.
Mentions: Threshold loading has been shown to induce improvements in strength (Larson et al 1988; Lotters et al 2002), maximum rate of muscle shortening (Romer et al 2002; Villafranca et al 1998; Romer and McConnell 2003), maximum power output (Lisboa et al 1994; Villafranca et al 1998; Romer and McConnell 2003), and muscle endurance (Lisboa et al 1994; Weiner et al 2004). Due to its flow independence, PTL training can be undertaken without monitoring the individual’s breathing pattern. In addition, PTL using a device with a mechanical poppet valve is both portable and easy to use, with evidence of efficacy when implemented in a domiciliary setting, as well as in long-term use (see also Figure 1). To cut short, although it appears to be as effective as RL, PTL (probably due to its simplicity, reliability and “user-friendliness”) has been implemented most widely, especially using the poppet valve method.

Bottom Line: It is known that respiratory muscles undergo adaptation in response to overload stimuli during exercise training in stable COPD patients, thus resulting in significant increase of respiratory muscle function as well as the individual's improvements.Frequency, duration, and intensity of exercise must be carefully considered for a training effect.In particular, while it seems that IMT is slightly superior to EMT in providing additional benefits other than respiratory muscle function such as a reduction in dyspnea, both the effects and the safety of EMT is still to be definitively elucidated in patients with COPD.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Modena-Reggio Emilia, Deparmentt of Pulmonary Rehabilitation, Ospedale Villa Pineta, Pavullo (MO), Italy.

ABSTRACT
It is known that respiratory muscles undergo adaptation in response to overload stimuli during exercise training in stable COPD patients, thus resulting in significant increase of respiratory muscle function as well as the individual's improvements. The present article reviews the most updated evidence with regard to the use of respiratory muscle training (RMT) methods in COPD patients. Basically, three types of RMT (resistive training, pressure threshold loading, and normocapnic hyperpnea) have been reported. Frequency, duration, and intensity of exercise must be carefully considered for a training effect. In contrast with the plentitude of existing data inherent to inspiratory muscle training (IMT), literature is still lacking in showing clinical and physiological studies related to expiratory muscle training (EMT). In particular, while it seems that IMT is slightly superior to EMT in providing additional benefits other than respiratory muscle function such as a reduction in dyspnea, both the effects and the safety of EMT is still to be definitively elucidated in patients with COPD.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus