Limits...
Encouraging expressions affect the brain and alter visual attention.

Martín-Loeches M, Sel A, Casado P, Jiménez L, Castellanos L - PLoS ONE (2009)

Bottom Line: Very often, encouraging or discouraging expressions are used in competitive contexts, such as sports practice, aiming at provoking an emotional reaction on the listener and, consequently, an effect on subsequent cognition and/or performance.To fill this gap, we studied the effects of encouraging, discouraging, and neutral expressions on event-related brain electrical activity during a visual selective attention task in which targets were determined by location, shape, and color.It can be stated, therefore, that encouraging expressions, as those used in sport practice, as well as in many other contexts and situations, do seem to be efficient in exerting emotional reactions and measurable effects on cognition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Human Evolution and Behavior, UCM-ISCIII, Madrid, Spain. mmartinloeches@edu.ucm.es

ABSTRACT

Background: Very often, encouraging or discouraging expressions are used in competitive contexts, such as sports practice, aiming at provoking an emotional reaction on the listener and, consequently, an effect on subsequent cognition and/or performance. However, the actual efficiency of these expressions has not been tested scientifically.

Methodology/principal findings: To fill this gap, we studied the effects of encouraging, discouraging, and neutral expressions on event-related brain electrical activity during a visual selective attention task in which targets were determined by location, shape, and color. Although the expressions preceded the attentional task, both encouraging and discouraging messages elicited a similar long-lasting brain emotional response present during the visuospatial task. In addition, encouraging expressions were able to alter the customary working pattern of the visual attention system for shape selection in the attended location, increasing the P1 and the SP modulations while simultaneously fading away the SN.

Conclusions/significance: This was interpreted as an enhancement of the attentional processes for shape in the attended location after an encouraging expression. It can be stated, therefore, that encouraging expressions, as those used in sport practice, as well as in many other contexts and situations, do seem to be efficient in exerting emotional reactions and measurable effects on cognition.

Show MeSH
Overall effects of the expressions on subsequent brain activity.ERPs to stimuli of the visuospatial task as a function of the type of preceding expression. Overall effects of the expressions, not interacting with visual selective attention. Top. ERP waveforms at a selection of electrodes. Bottom. Difference maps of the effects in the 144–336 and 436–636 time windows.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2692003&req=5

pone-0005920-g001: Overall effects of the expressions on subsequent brain activity.ERPs to stimuli of the visuospatial task as a function of the type of preceding expression. Overall effects of the expressions, not interacting with visual selective attention. Top. ERP waveforms at a selection of electrodes. Bottom. Difference maps of the effects in the 144–336 and 436–636 time windows.

Mentions: Significant effects of type of expression, either alone or interacting with electrode, on the ERP fluctuations time-locked to visual stimuli appeared for the periods 144–336 ms and 436–636 ms (all Fs(2,46) for type of expression alone between 2.43 to 6.37, ps always <.05; all Fs(52,1196) when interacting with electrode between 2.18 to 3.61, ps between <.05 and <.01), revealing overall emotional effects. Figure 1 outlines these effects on the ERP fluctuations to visual stimuli as a function of the type of preceding expression, regardless of the attended features of the stimuli. As it can be seen, there is an emotional long-lasting negative effect along the whole epoch, starting around 130 ms and displaying a mainly central distribution, albeit the effects of positive expressions appeared slightly more posterior. Along the 336–436 segment, only a trend for significance could be found for the factor type of expression (Fs(2,46) 3.42, p = .08). Although this is probably caused by noise, or by alternative random factors, we decided to in-depth analyse these fluctuations by considering two windows, based on significant results only: 144–336 and 436–636 ms.


Encouraging expressions affect the brain and alter visual attention.

Martín-Loeches M, Sel A, Casado P, Jiménez L, Castellanos L - PLoS ONE (2009)

Overall effects of the expressions on subsequent brain activity.ERPs to stimuli of the visuospatial task as a function of the type of preceding expression. Overall effects of the expressions, not interacting with visual selective attention. Top. ERP waveforms at a selection of electrodes. Bottom. Difference maps of the effects in the 144–336 and 436–636 time windows.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2692003&req=5

pone-0005920-g001: Overall effects of the expressions on subsequent brain activity.ERPs to stimuli of the visuospatial task as a function of the type of preceding expression. Overall effects of the expressions, not interacting with visual selective attention. Top. ERP waveforms at a selection of electrodes. Bottom. Difference maps of the effects in the 144–336 and 436–636 time windows.
Mentions: Significant effects of type of expression, either alone or interacting with electrode, on the ERP fluctuations time-locked to visual stimuli appeared for the periods 144–336 ms and 436–636 ms (all Fs(2,46) for type of expression alone between 2.43 to 6.37, ps always <.05; all Fs(52,1196) when interacting with electrode between 2.18 to 3.61, ps between <.05 and <.01), revealing overall emotional effects. Figure 1 outlines these effects on the ERP fluctuations to visual stimuli as a function of the type of preceding expression, regardless of the attended features of the stimuli. As it can be seen, there is an emotional long-lasting negative effect along the whole epoch, starting around 130 ms and displaying a mainly central distribution, albeit the effects of positive expressions appeared slightly more posterior. Along the 336–436 segment, only a trend for significance could be found for the factor type of expression (Fs(2,46) 3.42, p = .08). Although this is probably caused by noise, or by alternative random factors, we decided to in-depth analyse these fluctuations by considering two windows, based on significant results only: 144–336 and 436–636 ms.

Bottom Line: Very often, encouraging or discouraging expressions are used in competitive contexts, such as sports practice, aiming at provoking an emotional reaction on the listener and, consequently, an effect on subsequent cognition and/or performance.To fill this gap, we studied the effects of encouraging, discouraging, and neutral expressions on event-related brain electrical activity during a visual selective attention task in which targets were determined by location, shape, and color.It can be stated, therefore, that encouraging expressions, as those used in sport practice, as well as in many other contexts and situations, do seem to be efficient in exerting emotional reactions and measurable effects on cognition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Human Evolution and Behavior, UCM-ISCIII, Madrid, Spain. mmartinloeches@edu.ucm.es

ABSTRACT

Background: Very often, encouraging or discouraging expressions are used in competitive contexts, such as sports practice, aiming at provoking an emotional reaction on the listener and, consequently, an effect on subsequent cognition and/or performance. However, the actual efficiency of these expressions has not been tested scientifically.

Methodology/principal findings: To fill this gap, we studied the effects of encouraging, discouraging, and neutral expressions on event-related brain electrical activity during a visual selective attention task in which targets were determined by location, shape, and color. Although the expressions preceded the attentional task, both encouraging and discouraging messages elicited a similar long-lasting brain emotional response present during the visuospatial task. In addition, encouraging expressions were able to alter the customary working pattern of the visual attention system for shape selection in the attended location, increasing the P1 and the SP modulations while simultaneously fading away the SN.

Conclusions/significance: This was interpreted as an enhancement of the attentional processes for shape in the attended location after an encouraging expression. It can be stated, therefore, that encouraging expressions, as those used in sport practice, as well as in many other contexts and situations, do seem to be efficient in exerting emotional reactions and measurable effects on cognition.

Show MeSH