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Concepts of cardiac development in retrospect.

van den Berg G, Moorman AF - Pediatr Cardiol (2009)

Bottom Line: Intriguingly, many years ago, classic experimental embryological studies reached very similar conclusions.Since cardiac development occurs in an architecturally complex and dynamic fashion, molecular insights can only fully be exploited when placed in a proper morphological context.In this communication we present excerpts of important embryological studies of the pioneers of experimental cardiac embryology of the previous century, to relate insights from the past to current observations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Heart Failure Research Center, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Recent research, enabled by powerful molecular techniques, has revolutionized our concepts of cardiac development. It was firmly established that the early heart tube gives rise to the left ventricle only, and that the remainder of the myocardium is recruited from surrounding mesoderm during subsequent development. Also, the cardiac chambers were shown not to be derived from the entire looping heart tube, but only from the myocardium at its outer curvatures. Intriguingly, many years ago, classic experimental embryological studies reached very similar conclusions. However, with the current scientific emphasis on molecular mechanisms, old morphological insights became underexposed. Since cardiac development occurs in an architecturally complex and dynamic fashion, molecular insights can only fully be exploited when placed in a proper morphological context. In this communication we present excerpts of important embryological studies of the pioneers of experimental cardiac embryology of the previous century, to relate insights from the past to current observations.

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Morphological changes during early heart development. The illustrations on the left show how, by folding of the embryo, a foregut (show in green) is formed, and how the bilateral heart-forming region (shown in gray) swings toward ventral and medial to progressively fuse at the midline. The illustrations on the right show schematic transverse sections of the changes that occur in the embryo during folding. AIP anterior intestinal portal, c.c. coelomic cavity, dm dorsal mesocardium, ectod ectoderm, endod endoderm, fg foregut, HFR heart-forming region, lat lateral, med medial, mesod mesoderm, ng neural groove, pbw pericardial back wall, * contact between endocardium and myocardium. Source: images are based on Stalsberg and De Haan [42] and De Jong et al. [9]
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Fig2: Morphological changes during early heart development. The illustrations on the left show how, by folding of the embryo, a foregut (show in green) is formed, and how the bilateral heart-forming region (shown in gray) swings toward ventral and medial to progressively fuse at the midline. The illustrations on the right show schematic transverse sections of the changes that occur in the embryo during folding. AIP anterior intestinal portal, c.c. coelomic cavity, dm dorsal mesocardium, ectod ectoderm, endod endoderm, fg foregut, HFR heart-forming region, lat lateral, med medial, mesod mesoderm, ng neural groove, pbw pericardial back wall, * contact between endocardium and myocardium. Source: images are based on Stalsberg and De Haan [42] and De Jong et al. [9]

Mentions: The current view on cardiac development is that the heart is formed by cells that originate from several embryonic fields [2]. Prior to this notion, however, only a single heart-forming region (HFR) was described [29, 30]. The classic consensus of the formation of the early heart tube from this HFR is depicted in Fig. 2. With gastrulation, intra-embryonic mesoderm is formed, which is then separated into a splanchnic and a somatic layer by formation of the coelomic cavity. The somatic mesoderm lines the ectoderm, and the splanchnic mesoderm lines the endoderm. Transplantation studies showed that the embryonic disc contains a left and a right heart-forming region HFR in its splanchnic mesoderm [29, 30]. Expression of important cardiac transcription factors such as Nxk2.5 [21], Gata4 [17], and e/dHand [40] underlines the cardiogenic capacity of this mesoderm.Fig. 2


Concepts of cardiac development in retrospect.

van den Berg G, Moorman AF - Pediatr Cardiol (2009)

Morphological changes during early heart development. The illustrations on the left show how, by folding of the embryo, a foregut (show in green) is formed, and how the bilateral heart-forming region (shown in gray) swings toward ventral and medial to progressively fuse at the midline. The illustrations on the right show schematic transverse sections of the changes that occur in the embryo during folding. AIP anterior intestinal portal, c.c. coelomic cavity, dm dorsal mesocardium, ectod ectoderm, endod endoderm, fg foregut, HFR heart-forming region, lat lateral, med medial, mesod mesoderm, ng neural groove, pbw pericardial back wall, * contact between endocardium and myocardium. Source: images are based on Stalsberg and De Haan [42] and De Jong et al. [9]
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2691808&req=5

Fig2: Morphological changes during early heart development. The illustrations on the left show how, by folding of the embryo, a foregut (show in green) is formed, and how the bilateral heart-forming region (shown in gray) swings toward ventral and medial to progressively fuse at the midline. The illustrations on the right show schematic transverse sections of the changes that occur in the embryo during folding. AIP anterior intestinal portal, c.c. coelomic cavity, dm dorsal mesocardium, ectod ectoderm, endod endoderm, fg foregut, HFR heart-forming region, lat lateral, med medial, mesod mesoderm, ng neural groove, pbw pericardial back wall, * contact between endocardium and myocardium. Source: images are based on Stalsberg and De Haan [42] and De Jong et al. [9]
Mentions: The current view on cardiac development is that the heart is formed by cells that originate from several embryonic fields [2]. Prior to this notion, however, only a single heart-forming region (HFR) was described [29, 30]. The classic consensus of the formation of the early heart tube from this HFR is depicted in Fig. 2. With gastrulation, intra-embryonic mesoderm is formed, which is then separated into a splanchnic and a somatic layer by formation of the coelomic cavity. The somatic mesoderm lines the ectoderm, and the splanchnic mesoderm lines the endoderm. Transplantation studies showed that the embryonic disc contains a left and a right heart-forming region HFR in its splanchnic mesoderm [29, 30]. Expression of important cardiac transcription factors such as Nxk2.5 [21], Gata4 [17], and e/dHand [40] underlines the cardiogenic capacity of this mesoderm.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: Intriguingly, many years ago, classic experimental embryological studies reached very similar conclusions.Since cardiac development occurs in an architecturally complex and dynamic fashion, molecular insights can only fully be exploited when placed in a proper morphological context.In this communication we present excerpts of important embryological studies of the pioneers of experimental cardiac embryology of the previous century, to relate insights from the past to current observations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Heart Failure Research Center, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Recent research, enabled by powerful molecular techniques, has revolutionized our concepts of cardiac development. It was firmly established that the early heart tube gives rise to the left ventricle only, and that the remainder of the myocardium is recruited from surrounding mesoderm during subsequent development. Also, the cardiac chambers were shown not to be derived from the entire looping heart tube, but only from the myocardium at its outer curvatures. Intriguingly, many years ago, classic experimental embryological studies reached very similar conclusions. However, with the current scientific emphasis on molecular mechanisms, old morphological insights became underexposed. Since cardiac development occurs in an architecturally complex and dynamic fashion, molecular insights can only fully be exploited when placed in a proper morphological context. In this communication we present excerpts of important embryological studies of the pioneers of experimental cardiac embryology of the previous century, to relate insights from the past to current observations.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus