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Visual and motor connectivity and the distribution of calcium-binding proteins in macaque frontal eye field: implications for saccade target selection.

Pouget P, Stepniewska I, Crowder EA, Leslie MW, Emeric EE, Nelson MJ, Schall JD - Front Neuroanat (2009)

Bottom Line: We found that the neurons in FEF that project to V4 + TEO are located predominantly in the supragranular layers, colocalized with the highest density of calbindin- and calretinin-immunoreactive inhibitory interneurons.In contrast, the cell bodies of neurons that project to SC are found only in layer 5 of FEF, colocalized primarily with parvalbumin inhibitory interneurons.These results provide useful constraints for cognitive models of visual attention and saccade production by indicating that different populations of neurons project to extrastriate visual cortical areas and to SC.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Integrative and Cognitive Neuroscience, Vanderbilt Vision Research Center, Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University Nashville, TN, USA.

ABSTRACT
The frontal eye field (FEF) contributes to directing visual attention and saccadic eye movement through intrinsic processing, interactions with extrastriate visual cortical areas (e.g., V4), and projections to subcortical structures (e.g., superior colliculus, SC). Several models have been proposed to describe the relationship between the allocation of visual attention and the production of saccades. We obtained anatomical information that might provide useful constraints on these models by evaluating two characteristics of FEF. First, we investigated the laminar distribution of efferent connections from FEF to visual areas V4 + TEO and to SC. Second, we examined the laminar distribution of different populations of GABAergic neurons in FEF. We found that the neurons in FEF that project to V4 + TEO are located predominantly in the supragranular layers, colocalized with the highest density of calbindin- and calretinin-immunoreactive inhibitory interneurons. In contrast, the cell bodies of neurons that project to SC are found only in layer 5 of FEF, colocalized primarily with parvalbumin inhibitory interneurons. None of the neurons in layer 5 that project to V4 + TEO also project to SC. These results provide useful constraints for cognitive models of visual attention and saccade production by indicating that different populations of neurons project to extrastriate visual cortical areas and to SC. This finding also suggests that FEF neurons projecting to visual cortex and SC are embedded in different patterns of intracortical circuitry.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Brightfield photomicrograph of CB-labeled neurons in FEF. Most of these neurons are present in layers 2 and 3. Conventions as in Figure 4.
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Figure 5: Brightfield photomicrograph of CB-labeled neurons in FEF. Most of these neurons are present in layers 2 and 3. Conventions as in Figure 4.

Mentions: We quantified the density of immunoreactive neurons in different layers by counting the number of CR-, CB-, and PV-labeled cells in the rostral bank of the arcuate sulcus within both hemispheres of three monkeys. For each immunoreaction (CB, CR, and PV) photomicrographs of regions of FEF were made under 40× total magnification (Figures 4D, 5D, and 6D). In each cortical sample, immunoreactive neurons were counted in a grid 500 μm wide extending from the pial surface to the white matter, subdivided into 20–30 bins of 100 μm depth to span the cortical depth. Laminar borders were determined from adjacent Nissl-stained sections (Figures 4E, 5E, and 6E) according to previously described criteria (Preuss and Goldman-Rakic, 1991; Stanton et al., 1989). Each bin in each grid used for counting was then assigned to the appropriate layer. Counts were completed in 11 sections per antibody (with 2 to 3 grids per section for a total of 35 grids per antibody). This procedure resulted in total counts of 3904 CB-, 6605 CR-, and 3629 PV-labeled cells. Abercrombie and Johnson's (1946) first correction method was used to account for counting error incurred by labeled cells of different sizes spanning several sections.


Visual and motor connectivity and the distribution of calcium-binding proteins in macaque frontal eye field: implications for saccade target selection.

Pouget P, Stepniewska I, Crowder EA, Leslie MW, Emeric EE, Nelson MJ, Schall JD - Front Neuroanat (2009)

Brightfield photomicrograph of CB-labeled neurons in FEF. Most of these neurons are present in layers 2 and 3. Conventions as in Figure 4.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2691655&req=5

Figure 5: Brightfield photomicrograph of CB-labeled neurons in FEF. Most of these neurons are present in layers 2 and 3. Conventions as in Figure 4.
Mentions: We quantified the density of immunoreactive neurons in different layers by counting the number of CR-, CB-, and PV-labeled cells in the rostral bank of the arcuate sulcus within both hemispheres of three monkeys. For each immunoreaction (CB, CR, and PV) photomicrographs of regions of FEF were made under 40× total magnification (Figures 4D, 5D, and 6D). In each cortical sample, immunoreactive neurons were counted in a grid 500 μm wide extending from the pial surface to the white matter, subdivided into 20–30 bins of 100 μm depth to span the cortical depth. Laminar borders were determined from adjacent Nissl-stained sections (Figures 4E, 5E, and 6E) according to previously described criteria (Preuss and Goldman-Rakic, 1991; Stanton et al., 1989). Each bin in each grid used for counting was then assigned to the appropriate layer. Counts were completed in 11 sections per antibody (with 2 to 3 grids per section for a total of 35 grids per antibody). This procedure resulted in total counts of 3904 CB-, 6605 CR-, and 3629 PV-labeled cells. Abercrombie and Johnson's (1946) first correction method was used to account for counting error incurred by labeled cells of different sizes spanning several sections.

Bottom Line: We found that the neurons in FEF that project to V4 + TEO are located predominantly in the supragranular layers, colocalized with the highest density of calbindin- and calretinin-immunoreactive inhibitory interneurons.In contrast, the cell bodies of neurons that project to SC are found only in layer 5 of FEF, colocalized primarily with parvalbumin inhibitory interneurons.These results provide useful constraints for cognitive models of visual attention and saccade production by indicating that different populations of neurons project to extrastriate visual cortical areas and to SC.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Integrative and Cognitive Neuroscience, Vanderbilt Vision Research Center, Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University Nashville, TN, USA.

ABSTRACT
The frontal eye field (FEF) contributes to directing visual attention and saccadic eye movement through intrinsic processing, interactions with extrastriate visual cortical areas (e.g., V4), and projections to subcortical structures (e.g., superior colliculus, SC). Several models have been proposed to describe the relationship between the allocation of visual attention and the production of saccades. We obtained anatomical information that might provide useful constraints on these models by evaluating two characteristics of FEF. First, we investigated the laminar distribution of efferent connections from FEF to visual areas V4 + TEO and to SC. Second, we examined the laminar distribution of different populations of GABAergic neurons in FEF. We found that the neurons in FEF that project to V4 + TEO are located predominantly in the supragranular layers, colocalized with the highest density of calbindin- and calretinin-immunoreactive inhibitory interneurons. In contrast, the cell bodies of neurons that project to SC are found only in layer 5 of FEF, colocalized primarily with parvalbumin inhibitory interneurons. None of the neurons in layer 5 that project to V4 + TEO also project to SC. These results provide useful constraints for cognitive models of visual attention and saccade production by indicating that different populations of neurons project to extrastriate visual cortical areas and to SC. This finding also suggests that FEF neurons projecting to visual cortex and SC are embedded in different patterns of intracortical circuitry.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus