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Early interfaced neural activity from chronic amputated nerves.

Garde K, Keefer E, Botterman B, Galvan P, Romero MI - Front Neuroeng (2009)

Bottom Line: Direct interfacing of transected peripheral nerves with advanced robotic prosthetic devices has been proposed as a strategy for achieving natural motor control and sensory perception of such bionic substitutes, thus fully functionally replacing missing limbs in amputees.Multi-electrode arrays placed in the brain and peripheral nerves have been used successfully to convey neural control of prosthetic devices to the user.Non-restrictive electrode arrays placed in the path of regenerating nerve fibers allowed the recording of action potentials as early as 8 days post-implantation with high signal-to-noise ratio, as long as 3 months in some animals, and with minimal inflammation at the nerve tissue-metal electrode interface.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Dallas, TX, USA.

ABSTRACT
Direct interfacing of transected peripheral nerves with advanced robotic prosthetic devices has been proposed as a strategy for achieving natural motor control and sensory perception of such bionic substitutes, thus fully functionally replacing missing limbs in amputees. Multi-electrode arrays placed in the brain and peripheral nerves have been used successfully to convey neural control of prosthetic devices to the user. However, reactive gliosis, micro hemorrhages, axonopathy and excessive inflammation currently limit their long-term use. Here we demonstrate that enticement of peripheral nerve regeneration through a non-obstructive multi-electrode array, after either acute or chronic nerve amputation, offers a viable alternative to obtain early neural recordings and to enhance long-term interfacing of nerve activity. Non-restrictive electrode arrays placed in the path of regenerating nerve fibers allowed the recording of action potentials as early as 8 days post-implantation with high signal-to-noise ratio, as long as 3 months in some animals, and with minimal inflammation at the nerve tissue-metal electrode interface. Our findings suggest that regenerative multi-electrode arrays of open design allow early and stable interfacing of neural activity from amputated peripheral nerves and might contribute towards conveying full neural control and sensory feedback to users of robotic prosthetic devices.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Nerve regeneration through the multi-electrode array. Specific neuronal labeling by β-tubulin immunostaining (green) demonstrates axonal regeneration around the electrodes (asterisks) in both acute (A–C) and chronic (D–F) injured nerves. DAPI (blue) counter staining. Scale bar = 50 μm.
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Figure 2: Nerve regeneration through the multi-electrode array. Specific neuronal labeling by β-tubulin immunostaining (green) demonstrates axonal regeneration around the electrodes (asterisks) in both acute (A–C) and chronic (D–F) injured nerves. DAPI (blue) counter staining. Scale bar = 50 μm.

Mentions: To directly demonstrate axonal regeneration through the multi-electrode nerve guide, paraffin sections of the regenerated tissue at proximal, middle, and distal levels of the nerve guide were immunolabeled for the specific neuronal marker β-tubulin. Representative sections from animals either implanted at the time of injury (Figures 2A–C), or after chronic nerve amputation (Figures 2D–F) showed abundant axons of normal morphology circumventing the electrodes at the middle of the array and into the distal nerve stump, demonstrating that regenerating neurons successfully traversed the multi-electrode array placed in the lumen of the nerve guide. Quantification of nerve regeneration through the electrode nerve guide as determined by β-tubulin densitometry at the proximal and distal ends of the regenerate, indicated that 64.58 ± 7.42% of the axons were able to transverse the electrode array in animals with acute nerve injuries. The cause of reduced nerve regeneration in the distal tissue of chronically amputated animals (Figure 2F) is unclear. However, it might reflect the reported diminished capacity of neurons to regenerate after chronic denervation (Fu and Gordon, 1995).


Early interfaced neural activity from chronic amputated nerves.

Garde K, Keefer E, Botterman B, Galvan P, Romero MI - Front Neuroeng (2009)

Nerve regeneration through the multi-electrode array. Specific neuronal labeling by β-tubulin immunostaining (green) demonstrates axonal regeneration around the electrodes (asterisks) in both acute (A–C) and chronic (D–F) injured nerves. DAPI (blue) counter staining. Scale bar = 50 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2691654&req=5

Figure 2: Nerve regeneration through the multi-electrode array. Specific neuronal labeling by β-tubulin immunostaining (green) demonstrates axonal regeneration around the electrodes (asterisks) in both acute (A–C) and chronic (D–F) injured nerves. DAPI (blue) counter staining. Scale bar = 50 μm.
Mentions: To directly demonstrate axonal regeneration through the multi-electrode nerve guide, paraffin sections of the regenerated tissue at proximal, middle, and distal levels of the nerve guide were immunolabeled for the specific neuronal marker β-tubulin. Representative sections from animals either implanted at the time of injury (Figures 2A–C), or after chronic nerve amputation (Figures 2D–F) showed abundant axons of normal morphology circumventing the electrodes at the middle of the array and into the distal nerve stump, demonstrating that regenerating neurons successfully traversed the multi-electrode array placed in the lumen of the nerve guide. Quantification of nerve regeneration through the electrode nerve guide as determined by β-tubulin densitometry at the proximal and distal ends of the regenerate, indicated that 64.58 ± 7.42% of the axons were able to transverse the electrode array in animals with acute nerve injuries. The cause of reduced nerve regeneration in the distal tissue of chronically amputated animals (Figure 2F) is unclear. However, it might reflect the reported diminished capacity of neurons to regenerate after chronic denervation (Fu and Gordon, 1995).

Bottom Line: Direct interfacing of transected peripheral nerves with advanced robotic prosthetic devices has been proposed as a strategy for achieving natural motor control and sensory perception of such bionic substitutes, thus fully functionally replacing missing limbs in amputees.Multi-electrode arrays placed in the brain and peripheral nerves have been used successfully to convey neural control of prosthetic devices to the user.Non-restrictive electrode arrays placed in the path of regenerating nerve fibers allowed the recording of action potentials as early as 8 days post-implantation with high signal-to-noise ratio, as long as 3 months in some animals, and with minimal inflammation at the nerve tissue-metal electrode interface.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Dallas, TX, USA.

ABSTRACT
Direct interfacing of transected peripheral nerves with advanced robotic prosthetic devices has been proposed as a strategy for achieving natural motor control and sensory perception of such bionic substitutes, thus fully functionally replacing missing limbs in amputees. Multi-electrode arrays placed in the brain and peripheral nerves have been used successfully to convey neural control of prosthetic devices to the user. However, reactive gliosis, micro hemorrhages, axonopathy and excessive inflammation currently limit their long-term use. Here we demonstrate that enticement of peripheral nerve regeneration through a non-obstructive multi-electrode array, after either acute or chronic nerve amputation, offers a viable alternative to obtain early neural recordings and to enhance long-term interfacing of nerve activity. Non-restrictive electrode arrays placed in the path of regenerating nerve fibers allowed the recording of action potentials as early as 8 days post-implantation with high signal-to-noise ratio, as long as 3 months in some animals, and with minimal inflammation at the nerve tissue-metal electrode interface. Our findings suggest that regenerative multi-electrode arrays of open design allow early and stable interfacing of neural activity from amputated peripheral nerves and might contribute towards conveying full neural control and sensory feedback to users of robotic prosthetic devices.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus