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Exercise-training in young Drosophila melanogaster reduces age-related decline in mobility and cardiac performance.

Piazza N, Gosangi B, Devilla S, Arking R, Wessells R - PLoS ONE (2009)

Bottom Line: Exercise-based therapies have shown great promise in sustaining mobility in elderly patients, as well as in rodent models.When young flies are subjected to a carefully controlled, ramped paradigm of exercise-training, they display significant reduction in age-related decline in mobility and cardiac performance.Fly lines with improved mitochondrial efficiency display some of the phenotypes observed in wild-type exercised flies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Gerontology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

ABSTRACT
Declining mobility is a major concern, as well as a major source of health care costs, among the elderly population. Lack of mobility is a primary cause of entry into managed care facilities, and a contributing factor to the frequency of damaging falls. Exercise-based therapies have shown great promise in sustaining mobility in elderly patients, as well as in rodent models. However, the genetic basis of the changing physiological responses to exercise during aging is not well understood. Here, we describe the first exercise-training paradigm in an invertebrate genetic model system. Flies are exercised by a mechanized platform, known as the Power Tower, that rapidly, repeatedly, induces their innate instinct for negative geotaxis. When young flies are subjected to a carefully controlled, ramped paradigm of exercise-training, they display significant reduction in age-related decline in mobility and cardiac performance. Fly lines with improved mitochondrial efficiency display some of the phenotypes observed in wild-type exercised flies. The exercise response in flies is influenced by the amount of protein and lipid, but not carbohydrate, in the diet. The development of an exercise-training model in Drosophila melanogaster opens the way to direct testing of single-gene based genetic therapies for improved mobility in aged animals, as well as unbiased genetic screens for loci involved in the changing response to exercise during aging.

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Negative geotaxis is shown for y1w1 while changing the amount of sucrose in the diet and keeping yeast levels constant.(A): On a 20% sucrose, 10% yeast diet, no apparent difference is seen early on in the time-course of exercise-training. Lifespan was greatly reduced on this diet, therefore too small of a sample size was available for statistical analysis. (B): On a 5% sucrose, 10% yeast diet, exercise-trained flies (blue diamonds) have a reduction in negative geotaxis ability compared to unexercised controls (red squares) (Treatment (days 19–29): p<0.0001). (C) On a 2.5%, 10% yeast diet, exercise-trained flies (blue diamonds) have a decline in negative geotaxis ability compared to unexercised controls (red squares) (Treatment (days 19–36): p = 0.0088). (D): Negative geotaxis ability of exercise-trained y1w1 flies are graphed by diet (purple Xs: 20% sucrose; blue diamonds: 10% sucrose; green triangles: 5% sucrose; red squares: 2.5% sucrose). (E): A difference plot between exercise-trained and unexercised flies on various sucrose diets. Data for 10% yeast, 10% sucrose diet is derived from the experiment shown in Figure 4B and is reused for comparative purposes.
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pone-0005886-g005: Negative geotaxis is shown for y1w1 while changing the amount of sucrose in the diet and keeping yeast levels constant.(A): On a 20% sucrose, 10% yeast diet, no apparent difference is seen early on in the time-course of exercise-training. Lifespan was greatly reduced on this diet, therefore too small of a sample size was available for statistical analysis. (B): On a 5% sucrose, 10% yeast diet, exercise-trained flies (blue diamonds) have a reduction in negative geotaxis ability compared to unexercised controls (red squares) (Treatment (days 19–29): p<0.0001). (C) On a 2.5%, 10% yeast diet, exercise-trained flies (blue diamonds) have a decline in negative geotaxis ability compared to unexercised controls (red squares) (Treatment (days 19–36): p = 0.0088). (D): Negative geotaxis ability of exercise-trained y1w1 flies are graphed by diet (purple Xs: 20% sucrose; blue diamonds: 10% sucrose; green triangles: 5% sucrose; red squares: 2.5% sucrose). (E): A difference plot between exercise-trained and unexercised flies on various sucrose diets. Data for 10% yeast, 10% sucrose diet is derived from the experiment shown in Figure 4B and is reused for comparative purposes.

Mentions: On 20% sucrose, twice the amount of sugar as in our standard laboratory diet, little difference in mobility was seen during the first two weeks of exercise training (Fig. 5A). Lifespan is greatly reduced on this enriched diet (data not shown). After two weeks of exercise, the sample size of surviving flies became too low for reliable statistical analysis, and after three weeks, all flies in the cohort had died.


Exercise-training in young Drosophila melanogaster reduces age-related decline in mobility and cardiac performance.

Piazza N, Gosangi B, Devilla S, Arking R, Wessells R - PLoS ONE (2009)

Negative geotaxis is shown for y1w1 while changing the amount of sucrose in the diet and keeping yeast levels constant.(A): On a 20% sucrose, 10% yeast diet, no apparent difference is seen early on in the time-course of exercise-training. Lifespan was greatly reduced on this diet, therefore too small of a sample size was available for statistical analysis. (B): On a 5% sucrose, 10% yeast diet, exercise-trained flies (blue diamonds) have a reduction in negative geotaxis ability compared to unexercised controls (red squares) (Treatment (days 19–29): p<0.0001). (C) On a 2.5%, 10% yeast diet, exercise-trained flies (blue diamonds) have a decline in negative geotaxis ability compared to unexercised controls (red squares) (Treatment (days 19–36): p = 0.0088). (D): Negative geotaxis ability of exercise-trained y1w1 flies are graphed by diet (purple Xs: 20% sucrose; blue diamonds: 10% sucrose; green triangles: 5% sucrose; red squares: 2.5% sucrose). (E): A difference plot between exercise-trained and unexercised flies on various sucrose diets. Data for 10% yeast, 10% sucrose diet is derived from the experiment shown in Figure 4B and is reused for comparative purposes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2691613&req=5

pone-0005886-g005: Negative geotaxis is shown for y1w1 while changing the amount of sucrose in the diet and keeping yeast levels constant.(A): On a 20% sucrose, 10% yeast diet, no apparent difference is seen early on in the time-course of exercise-training. Lifespan was greatly reduced on this diet, therefore too small of a sample size was available for statistical analysis. (B): On a 5% sucrose, 10% yeast diet, exercise-trained flies (blue diamonds) have a reduction in negative geotaxis ability compared to unexercised controls (red squares) (Treatment (days 19–29): p<0.0001). (C) On a 2.5%, 10% yeast diet, exercise-trained flies (blue diamonds) have a decline in negative geotaxis ability compared to unexercised controls (red squares) (Treatment (days 19–36): p = 0.0088). (D): Negative geotaxis ability of exercise-trained y1w1 flies are graphed by diet (purple Xs: 20% sucrose; blue diamonds: 10% sucrose; green triangles: 5% sucrose; red squares: 2.5% sucrose). (E): A difference plot between exercise-trained and unexercised flies on various sucrose diets. Data for 10% yeast, 10% sucrose diet is derived from the experiment shown in Figure 4B and is reused for comparative purposes.
Mentions: On 20% sucrose, twice the amount of sugar as in our standard laboratory diet, little difference in mobility was seen during the first two weeks of exercise training (Fig. 5A). Lifespan is greatly reduced on this enriched diet (data not shown). After two weeks of exercise, the sample size of surviving flies became too low for reliable statistical analysis, and after three weeks, all flies in the cohort had died.

Bottom Line: Exercise-based therapies have shown great promise in sustaining mobility in elderly patients, as well as in rodent models.When young flies are subjected to a carefully controlled, ramped paradigm of exercise-training, they display significant reduction in age-related decline in mobility and cardiac performance.Fly lines with improved mitochondrial efficiency display some of the phenotypes observed in wild-type exercised flies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Gerontology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

ABSTRACT
Declining mobility is a major concern, as well as a major source of health care costs, among the elderly population. Lack of mobility is a primary cause of entry into managed care facilities, and a contributing factor to the frequency of damaging falls. Exercise-based therapies have shown great promise in sustaining mobility in elderly patients, as well as in rodent models. However, the genetic basis of the changing physiological responses to exercise during aging is not well understood. Here, we describe the first exercise-training paradigm in an invertebrate genetic model system. Flies are exercised by a mechanized platform, known as the Power Tower, that rapidly, repeatedly, induces their innate instinct for negative geotaxis. When young flies are subjected to a carefully controlled, ramped paradigm of exercise-training, they display significant reduction in age-related decline in mobility and cardiac performance. Fly lines with improved mitochondrial efficiency display some of the phenotypes observed in wild-type exercised flies. The exercise response in flies is influenced by the amount of protein and lipid, but not carbohydrate, in the diet. The development of an exercise-training model in Drosophila melanogaster opens the way to direct testing of single-gene based genetic therapies for improved mobility in aged animals, as well as unbiased genetic screens for loci involved in the changing response to exercise during aging.

Show MeSH