Limits...
Build-ups in the supply chain of the brain: on the neuroenergetic cause of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Peters A, Langemann D - Front Neuroenergetics (2009)

Bottom Line: In the same way, we demonstrate support of the related hypothesis, which states that under conditions of food deprivation a competent brain-pull mechanism is indispensable for the continuance of the brain s high energy level.In conclusion, we took the viewpoint of integrative physiology and provided evidence for the necessity of brain-pull mechanisms for the benefit of health.Along these lines, our work supports recent molecular findings from the field of neuroenergetics and continues the work on the "Selfish Brain" theory dealing with the maintenance of the cerebral and peripheral energy homeostasis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Head of the Clinical Research Group, Brainmetabolism, Neuroenergetics, Obesity and Diabetes, Medical Clinic 1 Lübeck, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Obesity and type 2 diabetes have become the major health problems in many industrialized countries. A few theoretical frameworks have been set up to derive the possible determinative cause of obesity. One concept views that food availability determines food intake, i.e. that obesity is the result of an external energy "push" into the body. Another one views that the energy milieu within the human organism determines food intake, i.e. that obesity is due to an excessive "pull" from inside the organism. Here we present the unconventional concept that a healthy organism is maintained by a "competent brain-pull" which serves systemic homeostasis, and that the underlying cause of obesity is "incompetent brain-pull", i.e. that the brain is unable to properly demand glucose from the body. We describe the energy fluxes from the environment, through the body, towards the brain with a mathematical "supply chain" model and test whether its predictions fit medical and experimental data sets from our and other research groups. In this way, we show data-based support of our hypothesis, which states that under conditions of food abundance incompetent brain-pull will lead to build-ups in the supply chain culminating in obesity and type 2 diabetes. In the same way, we demonstrate support of the related hypothesis, which states that under conditions of food deprivation a competent brain-pull mechanism is indispensable for the continuance of the brain s high energy level. In conclusion, we took the viewpoint of integrative physiology and provided evidence for the necessity of brain-pull mechanisms for the benefit of health. Along these lines, our work supports recent molecular findings from the field of neuroenergetics and continues the work on the "Selfish Brain" theory dealing with the maintenance of the cerebral and peripheral energy homeostasis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

General supply chain of the human brain. Energy from the remote environment is brought to the immediate environment, it is then taken up by the body, and from there a large part of it enters the brain. In a general supply chain, the flux of energy can principally be determined by the supplier (previous step) or by the receiver (proximate step). The share of the flux which is determined by the supplier is called the “push component” (blue arrows), the share which is determined by the receiver is called the “pull component” (black arrows). The glucostatic and lipostatic theory cover a particular section (gray area) within the extended supply chain of the brain. A principle is adherent to general supply chains: The flow of goods (energy) is directed antegrade (towards the final consumer), but in case of an interruption at some point, the disturbance propagates retrograde, in the opposite direction, i.e. away from the consumer. In this way, build-ups can develop in front of the “bottleneck.”
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2691548&req=5

Figure 1: General supply chain of the human brain. Energy from the remote environment is brought to the immediate environment, it is then taken up by the body, and from there a large part of it enters the brain. In a general supply chain, the flux of energy can principally be determined by the supplier (previous step) or by the receiver (proximate step). The share of the flux which is determined by the supplier is called the “push component” (blue arrows), the share which is determined by the receiver is called the “pull component” (black arrows). The glucostatic and lipostatic theory cover a particular section (gray area) within the extended supply chain of the brain. A principle is adherent to general supply chains: The flow of goods (energy) is directed antegrade (towards the final consumer), but in case of an interruption at some point, the disturbance propagates retrograde, in the opposite direction, i.e. away from the consumer. In this way, build-ups can develop in front of the “bottleneck.”

Mentions: In order to work on both of these hypotheses, we firstly designed a brain-supply-chain model (Figure 1). Because the brain has been shown to be the organ that consumes the largest share of glucose in the organism, we have regarded it as the final consumer in this model. Energy from the remote environment is brought to the immediate environment, it is then taken up by the body (into the blood stream), and from there approximately 2⁄3 of the circulating glucose enters in the brain. Supply chains in industrial production processes display striking similarities to the glucose pathway from the environment through the body towards the brain. In the field of logistics such supply chains have been extensively studied. Over the decades, a number of basic principles have been formulated and elaborated (Slack et al., 2004). The so-called “push”-principle operates according to the following rule: The supplier delivers material and in so doing determines the activity of a production step. In contrast, the so-called “pull”-principle works in the following manner: The material required for a production step is provided only when the receiver needs it (just-in-time). In comparison with the “push”-principle the “pull”-principle offers clear economic advantages; with the latter there are short set-up times and only small (economically optimized) storage sites. Many modern industrial branches have recognized that pull components are particularly efficient. While designing our brain-supply-chain model we referred to the basic principles of general supply chains.


Build-ups in the supply chain of the brain: on the neuroenergetic cause of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Peters A, Langemann D - Front Neuroenergetics (2009)

General supply chain of the human brain. Energy from the remote environment is brought to the immediate environment, it is then taken up by the body, and from there a large part of it enters the brain. In a general supply chain, the flux of energy can principally be determined by the supplier (previous step) or by the receiver (proximate step). The share of the flux which is determined by the supplier is called the “push component” (blue arrows), the share which is determined by the receiver is called the “pull component” (black arrows). The glucostatic and lipostatic theory cover a particular section (gray area) within the extended supply chain of the brain. A principle is adherent to general supply chains: The flow of goods (energy) is directed antegrade (towards the final consumer), but in case of an interruption at some point, the disturbance propagates retrograde, in the opposite direction, i.e. away from the consumer. In this way, build-ups can develop in front of the “bottleneck.”
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2691548&req=5

Figure 1: General supply chain of the human brain. Energy from the remote environment is brought to the immediate environment, it is then taken up by the body, and from there a large part of it enters the brain. In a general supply chain, the flux of energy can principally be determined by the supplier (previous step) or by the receiver (proximate step). The share of the flux which is determined by the supplier is called the “push component” (blue arrows), the share which is determined by the receiver is called the “pull component” (black arrows). The glucostatic and lipostatic theory cover a particular section (gray area) within the extended supply chain of the brain. A principle is adherent to general supply chains: The flow of goods (energy) is directed antegrade (towards the final consumer), but in case of an interruption at some point, the disturbance propagates retrograde, in the opposite direction, i.e. away from the consumer. In this way, build-ups can develop in front of the “bottleneck.”
Mentions: In order to work on both of these hypotheses, we firstly designed a brain-supply-chain model (Figure 1). Because the brain has been shown to be the organ that consumes the largest share of glucose in the organism, we have regarded it as the final consumer in this model. Energy from the remote environment is brought to the immediate environment, it is then taken up by the body (into the blood stream), and from there approximately 2⁄3 of the circulating glucose enters in the brain. Supply chains in industrial production processes display striking similarities to the glucose pathway from the environment through the body towards the brain. In the field of logistics such supply chains have been extensively studied. Over the decades, a number of basic principles have been formulated and elaborated (Slack et al., 2004). The so-called “push”-principle operates according to the following rule: The supplier delivers material and in so doing determines the activity of a production step. In contrast, the so-called “pull”-principle works in the following manner: The material required for a production step is provided only when the receiver needs it (just-in-time). In comparison with the “push”-principle the “pull”-principle offers clear economic advantages; with the latter there are short set-up times and only small (economically optimized) storage sites. Many modern industrial branches have recognized that pull components are particularly efficient. While designing our brain-supply-chain model we referred to the basic principles of general supply chains.

Bottom Line: In the same way, we demonstrate support of the related hypothesis, which states that under conditions of food deprivation a competent brain-pull mechanism is indispensable for the continuance of the brain s high energy level.In conclusion, we took the viewpoint of integrative physiology and provided evidence for the necessity of brain-pull mechanisms for the benefit of health.Along these lines, our work supports recent molecular findings from the field of neuroenergetics and continues the work on the "Selfish Brain" theory dealing with the maintenance of the cerebral and peripheral energy homeostasis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Head of the Clinical Research Group, Brainmetabolism, Neuroenergetics, Obesity and Diabetes, Medical Clinic 1 Lübeck, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Obesity and type 2 diabetes have become the major health problems in many industrialized countries. A few theoretical frameworks have been set up to derive the possible determinative cause of obesity. One concept views that food availability determines food intake, i.e. that obesity is the result of an external energy "push" into the body. Another one views that the energy milieu within the human organism determines food intake, i.e. that obesity is due to an excessive "pull" from inside the organism. Here we present the unconventional concept that a healthy organism is maintained by a "competent brain-pull" which serves systemic homeostasis, and that the underlying cause of obesity is "incompetent brain-pull", i.e. that the brain is unable to properly demand glucose from the body. We describe the energy fluxes from the environment, through the body, towards the brain with a mathematical "supply chain" model and test whether its predictions fit medical and experimental data sets from our and other research groups. In this way, we show data-based support of our hypothesis, which states that under conditions of food abundance incompetent brain-pull will lead to build-ups in the supply chain culminating in obesity and type 2 diabetes. In the same way, we demonstrate support of the related hypothesis, which states that under conditions of food deprivation a competent brain-pull mechanism is indispensable for the continuance of the brain s high energy level. In conclusion, we took the viewpoint of integrative physiology and provided evidence for the necessity of brain-pull mechanisms for the benefit of health. Along these lines, our work supports recent molecular findings from the field of neuroenergetics and continues the work on the "Selfish Brain" theory dealing with the maintenance of the cerebral and peripheral energy homeostasis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus