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Unexpected arrest-related deaths in america: 12 months of open source surveillance.

Ho JD, Heegaard WG, Dawes DM, Natarajan S, Reardon RF, Miner JR - West J Emerg Med (2009)

Bottom Line: This surveillance report can be a foundation for discussing ARD.Collapse time associations were demonstrated with the use of TASER devices and impact weapons.We recommend further study in this area to validate our data collection method and findings.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Hennepin County Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Minneapolis, MN.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Sudden, unexpected arrest-related death (ARD) has been associated with drug abuse, extreme delirium or certain police practices. There is insufficient surveillance and causation data available. We report 12 months of surveillance data using a novel data collection methodology.

Methods: We used an open-source, prospective method to collect 12 consecutive months of data, including demographics, behavior, illicit substance use, control methods used, and time of collapse after law enforcement contact. Descriptive analysis and chi-square testing were applied.

Results: There were 162 ARD events reported that met inclusion criteria. The majority were male with mean age 36 years, and involved bizarre, agitated behavior and reports of drug abuse just prior to death. Law enforcement control techniques included none (14%); empty-hand techniques (69%); intermediate weapons such as TASER((R)) device, impact weapon or chemical irritant spray (52%); and deadly force (12%). Time from contact to subject collapse included instantaneous (13%), within the first hour (53%) and 1-48 hours (35%). Significant collapse time associations occurred with the use of certain intermediate weapons.

Conclusion: This surveillance report can be a foundation for discussing ARD. These data support the premise that ARDs primarily occur in persons with a certain demographic and behavior profile that includes middle-aged males exhibiting agitated, bizarre behavior generally following illicit drug abuse. Collapse time associations were demonstrated with the use of TASER devices and impact weapons. We recommend further study in this area to validate our data collection method and findings.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

ARD Frequency by Age (years)
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f2-wjem-10-68: ARD Frequency by Age (years)

Mentions: Over a 12-month period (May, 2004–April, 2005), 162 ARD events were reported in the United States that met inclusion criteria (Figure 1). An autopsy report or an arrest report was obtained in approximately 50% of cases. There were six females (3.7%) and 156 males (96.3%) with a mean age of 35.7 years (SD±9.8, range 15–75) (Figure 2). Of these, 102 (62.9%) exhibited unusual behavior and 101 (62.3%) had exposure to an illicit substance just prior to their encounter with law enforcement.


Unexpected arrest-related deaths in america: 12 months of open source surveillance.

Ho JD, Heegaard WG, Dawes DM, Natarajan S, Reardon RF, Miner JR - West J Emerg Med (2009)

ARD Frequency by Age (years)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2691515&req=5

f2-wjem-10-68: ARD Frequency by Age (years)
Mentions: Over a 12-month period (May, 2004–April, 2005), 162 ARD events were reported in the United States that met inclusion criteria (Figure 1). An autopsy report or an arrest report was obtained in approximately 50% of cases. There were six females (3.7%) and 156 males (96.3%) with a mean age of 35.7 years (SD±9.8, range 15–75) (Figure 2). Of these, 102 (62.9%) exhibited unusual behavior and 101 (62.3%) had exposure to an illicit substance just prior to their encounter with law enforcement.

Bottom Line: This surveillance report can be a foundation for discussing ARD.Collapse time associations were demonstrated with the use of TASER devices and impact weapons.We recommend further study in this area to validate our data collection method and findings.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Hennepin County Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Minneapolis, MN.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Sudden, unexpected arrest-related death (ARD) has been associated with drug abuse, extreme delirium or certain police practices. There is insufficient surveillance and causation data available. We report 12 months of surveillance data using a novel data collection methodology.

Methods: We used an open-source, prospective method to collect 12 consecutive months of data, including demographics, behavior, illicit substance use, control methods used, and time of collapse after law enforcement contact. Descriptive analysis and chi-square testing were applied.

Results: There were 162 ARD events reported that met inclusion criteria. The majority were male with mean age 36 years, and involved bizarre, agitated behavior and reports of drug abuse just prior to death. Law enforcement control techniques included none (14%); empty-hand techniques (69%); intermediate weapons such as TASER((R)) device, impact weapon or chemical irritant spray (52%); and deadly force (12%). Time from contact to subject collapse included instantaneous (13%), within the first hour (53%) and 1-48 hours (35%). Significant collapse time associations occurred with the use of certain intermediate weapons.

Conclusion: This surveillance report can be a foundation for discussing ARD. These data support the premise that ARDs primarily occur in persons with a certain demographic and behavior profile that includes middle-aged males exhibiting agitated, bizarre behavior generally following illicit drug abuse. Collapse time associations were demonstrated with the use of TASER devices and impact weapons. We recommend further study in this area to validate our data collection method and findings.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus