Limits...
Toward the restoration of hand use to a paralyzed monkey: brain-controlled functional electrical stimulation of forearm muscles.

Pohlmeyer EA, Oby ER, Perreault EJ, Solla SA, Kilgore KL, Kirsch RF, Miller LE - PLoS ONE (2009)

Bottom Line: In contrast, we are developing a system that uses neural signals recorded from a multi-electrode array implanted in the motor cortex; this system has the potential to provide independent control of multiple muscles over a broad range of functional tasks.Although these results were achieved by controlling only four muscles, there is no fundamental reason why the same methods could not be scaled up to control a larger number of muscles.We believe these results provide an important proof of concept that brain-controlled FES prostheses could ultimately be of great benefit to paralyzed patients with injuries in the mid-cervical spinal cord.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

ABSTRACT
Loss of hand use is considered by many spinal cord injury survivors to be the most devastating consequence of their injury. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) of forearm and hand muscles has been used to provide basic, voluntary hand grasp to hundreds of human patients. Current approaches typically grade pre-programmed patterns of muscle activation using simple control signals, such as those derived from residual movement or muscle activity. However, the use of such fixed stimulation patterns limits hand function to the few tasks programmed into the controller. In contrast, we are developing a system that uses neural signals recorded from a multi-electrode array implanted in the motor cortex; this system has the potential to provide independent control of multiple muscles over a broad range of functional tasks. Two monkeys were able to use this cortically controlled FES system to control the contraction of four forearm muscles despite temporary limb paralysis. The amount of wrist force the monkeys were able to produce in a one-dimensional force tracking task was significantly increased. Furthermore, the monkeys were able to control the magnitude and time course of the force with sufficient accuracy to track visually displayed force targets at speeds reduced by only one-third to one-half of normal. Although these results were achieved by controlling only four muscles, there is no fundamental reason why the same methods could not be scaled up to control a larger number of muscles. We believe these results provide an important proof of concept that brain-controlled FES prostheses could ultimately be of great benefit to paralyzed patients with injuries in the mid-cervical spinal cord.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Time course of normal and FES-generated force.(A) Averaged force during FES (red) and normal (black) sessions with matched targets (monkey T). Pink and gray rectangles represent the top, bottom, and average duration of the targets in FES and normal conditions, respectively. Because the force traces are aligned to force onset (vertical dashed line), the left edge of the target (indicating the time of its appearance) is dependent on the reaction time. Note that the left edge of the gray rectangle obscures much of the pink rectangle because of the very similar reaction times under normal and FES conditions. The two thick curves represent the force trajectories for medium targets; the thin curves represent force trajectories for the high and low targets. The time to target entry after force onset (“rise time”) was substantially longer during FES. (B) Average rise times for each session are plotted against the target height (distance of target above zero force, normalized to the Blocked MVC). Rise time increased with target height under both normal and FES conditions, but the FES times (red symbols) were longer than normal (black symbols) for each monkey (monkey T: circles, monkey A: squares).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2691481&req=5

pone-0005924-g004: Time course of normal and FES-generated force.(A) Averaged force during FES (red) and normal (black) sessions with matched targets (monkey T). Pink and gray rectangles represent the top, bottom, and average duration of the targets in FES and normal conditions, respectively. Because the force traces are aligned to force onset (vertical dashed line), the left edge of the target (indicating the time of its appearance) is dependent on the reaction time. Note that the left edge of the gray rectangle obscures much of the pink rectangle because of the very similar reaction times under normal and FES conditions. The two thick curves represent the force trajectories for medium targets; the thin curves represent force trajectories for the high and low targets. The time to target entry after force onset (“rise time”) was substantially longer during FES. (B) Average rise times for each session are plotted against the target height (distance of target above zero force, normalized to the Blocked MVC). Rise time increased with target height under both normal and FES conditions, but the FES times (red symbols) were longer than normal (black symbols) for each monkey (monkey T: circles, monkey A: squares).

Mentions: Figure 3 indicates that monkey T was able to control the magnitude of brain-controlled stimulation sufficiently well to grade wrist force according to several different target levels. For all sessions in which targets at multiple force levels were presented, the average force differed across targets, even when the targets partially overlapped (1-way ANOVA and Tukey's procedure, p≪0.001). Figure 4A compares average force trajectories for several different targets, aligned with respect to the onset of force under FES (red curves) and normal (black curves) conditions. The thick curves correspond to the medium height flexion target, indicated by the pink and gray rectangles (representing FES and normal conditions, respectively). The thin lines denote forces for the low and high force targets (corresponding targets not shown). Note that here and elsewhere, target height refers to the force level corresponding to the bottom of the target, not the difference between top and bottom. The left edge of each target rectangle corresponds to the average time of occurrence of the go tone. Hence, distance from the left edge of a target to time 0 (dashed line) is the average reaction time (RT). The right edge of the target rectangles indicates the end of the average hold time for successful trials.


Toward the restoration of hand use to a paralyzed monkey: brain-controlled functional electrical stimulation of forearm muscles.

Pohlmeyer EA, Oby ER, Perreault EJ, Solla SA, Kilgore KL, Kirsch RF, Miller LE - PLoS ONE (2009)

Time course of normal and FES-generated force.(A) Averaged force during FES (red) and normal (black) sessions with matched targets (monkey T). Pink and gray rectangles represent the top, bottom, and average duration of the targets in FES and normal conditions, respectively. Because the force traces are aligned to force onset (vertical dashed line), the left edge of the target (indicating the time of its appearance) is dependent on the reaction time. Note that the left edge of the gray rectangle obscures much of the pink rectangle because of the very similar reaction times under normal and FES conditions. The two thick curves represent the force trajectories for medium targets; the thin curves represent force trajectories for the high and low targets. The time to target entry after force onset (“rise time”) was substantially longer during FES. (B) Average rise times for each session are plotted against the target height (distance of target above zero force, normalized to the Blocked MVC). Rise time increased with target height under both normal and FES conditions, but the FES times (red symbols) were longer than normal (black symbols) for each monkey (monkey T: circles, monkey A: squares).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2691481&req=5

pone-0005924-g004: Time course of normal and FES-generated force.(A) Averaged force during FES (red) and normal (black) sessions with matched targets (monkey T). Pink and gray rectangles represent the top, bottom, and average duration of the targets in FES and normal conditions, respectively. Because the force traces are aligned to force onset (vertical dashed line), the left edge of the target (indicating the time of its appearance) is dependent on the reaction time. Note that the left edge of the gray rectangle obscures much of the pink rectangle because of the very similar reaction times under normal and FES conditions. The two thick curves represent the force trajectories for medium targets; the thin curves represent force trajectories for the high and low targets. The time to target entry after force onset (“rise time”) was substantially longer during FES. (B) Average rise times for each session are plotted against the target height (distance of target above zero force, normalized to the Blocked MVC). Rise time increased with target height under both normal and FES conditions, but the FES times (red symbols) were longer than normal (black symbols) for each monkey (monkey T: circles, monkey A: squares).
Mentions: Figure 3 indicates that monkey T was able to control the magnitude of brain-controlled stimulation sufficiently well to grade wrist force according to several different target levels. For all sessions in which targets at multiple force levels were presented, the average force differed across targets, even when the targets partially overlapped (1-way ANOVA and Tukey's procedure, p≪0.001). Figure 4A compares average force trajectories for several different targets, aligned with respect to the onset of force under FES (red curves) and normal (black curves) conditions. The thick curves correspond to the medium height flexion target, indicated by the pink and gray rectangles (representing FES and normal conditions, respectively). The thin lines denote forces for the low and high force targets (corresponding targets not shown). Note that here and elsewhere, target height refers to the force level corresponding to the bottom of the target, not the difference between top and bottom. The left edge of each target rectangle corresponds to the average time of occurrence of the go tone. Hence, distance from the left edge of a target to time 0 (dashed line) is the average reaction time (RT). The right edge of the target rectangles indicates the end of the average hold time for successful trials.

Bottom Line: In contrast, we are developing a system that uses neural signals recorded from a multi-electrode array implanted in the motor cortex; this system has the potential to provide independent control of multiple muscles over a broad range of functional tasks.Although these results were achieved by controlling only four muscles, there is no fundamental reason why the same methods could not be scaled up to control a larger number of muscles.We believe these results provide an important proof of concept that brain-controlled FES prostheses could ultimately be of great benefit to paralyzed patients with injuries in the mid-cervical spinal cord.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

ABSTRACT
Loss of hand use is considered by many spinal cord injury survivors to be the most devastating consequence of their injury. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) of forearm and hand muscles has been used to provide basic, voluntary hand grasp to hundreds of human patients. Current approaches typically grade pre-programmed patterns of muscle activation using simple control signals, such as those derived from residual movement or muscle activity. However, the use of such fixed stimulation patterns limits hand function to the few tasks programmed into the controller. In contrast, we are developing a system that uses neural signals recorded from a multi-electrode array implanted in the motor cortex; this system has the potential to provide independent control of multiple muscles over a broad range of functional tasks. Two monkeys were able to use this cortically controlled FES system to control the contraction of four forearm muscles despite temporary limb paralysis. The amount of wrist force the monkeys were able to produce in a one-dimensional force tracking task was significantly increased. Furthermore, the monkeys were able to control the magnitude and time course of the force with sufficient accuracy to track visually displayed force targets at speeds reduced by only one-third to one-half of normal. Although these results were achieved by controlling only four muscles, there is no fundamental reason why the same methods could not be scaled up to control a larger number of muscles. We believe these results provide an important proof of concept that brain-controlled FES prostheses could ultimately be of great benefit to paralyzed patients with injuries in the mid-cervical spinal cord.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus