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Neural correlates of attitude change following positive and negative advertisements.

Kato J, Ide H, Kabashima I, Kadota H, Takano K, Kansaku K - Front Behav Neurosci (2009)

Bottom Line: Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards.Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not) in the brain.This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Law and Politics, The University of Tokyo Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward others that are linked to social cognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments have presented videos from previous electoral campaigns and television commercials for major cola brands and then used the subjects' self-rated affinity toward political candidates as behavioural indicators. After viewing negative campaign videos, subjects showing stronger fMRI activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lowered their ratings of the candidate they originally supported more than did those with smaller fMRI signal changes in the same region. Subjects showing stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex tended to increase their ratings more than did those with less activation. The same regions were not activated by viewing negative advertisements for cola. Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not) in the brain. This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Tasks inside the MR machine. Three sessions of campaign advertisements and three sessions of cola advertisements were shown. After each session, the participants were asked which of the two candidates/brands they favoured. For both the campaign and cola advertisements, the first session consisted of positive advertisements for both candidates/brands. The candidate/brand favoured after the first session was attacked during the second session. The third session again consisted of positive advertisements for both candidates/brands, but the content differed from that of the first session. One advertisement session consisted of four segments of 30-s advertisements with each advertisement followed by a 30-s rest period.
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Figure 1: Tasks inside the MR machine. Three sessions of campaign advertisements and three sessions of cola advertisements were shown. After each session, the participants were asked which of the two candidates/brands they favoured. For both the campaign and cola advertisements, the first session consisted of positive advertisements for both candidates/brands. The candidate/brand favoured after the first session was attacked during the second session. The third session again consisted of positive advertisements for both candidates/brands, but the content differed from that of the first session. One advertisement session consisted of four segments of 30-s advertisements with each advertisement followed by a 30-s rest period.

Mentions: We used videos from the 1992 US presidential campaign and ads for two cola brands for comparison. Participants spent three sessions viewing presidential campaign advertisements (Bush vs. Clinton) and three viewing cola advertisements (Coke® vs. Pepsi®) inside an MRI machine (Figure 1). The order of the six sessions (both political and commercial ads) was counterbalanced among the participants; about half the participants experienced the six sessions in the reverse order. After each session, they were asked which candidate (or cola brand) they favoured. For both the campaign and cola advertisements, positive advertisements about each candidate (or brand) were shown in the first session, followed by a second session of negative advertisements that attacked the candidate/brand of choice. The third session again showed positive advertisements for both sides, but the content differed from the first session. One advertisement session consisted of four segments of 30-s advertisements; each advertisement was followed by a 30-s rest period. For the political campaign advertisements, participants were asked in a post-task questionnaire to rate how (un)favourable they felt towards each candidate after each session. Using an analogy with thermometry for expressing cold- and warm-heartedness, they were instructed to give a rating of 50 [in a range from 0 (least favourable) to 100 (most favourable)] when they were neutral about a candidate. This rating was built on a measure of the so-called “feeling thermometer,” used by the Center for Political Studies, University of Michigan, to analyse presidential elections since 1968 (Weisberg and Miller, 1979), and studies of elections and social groups (Cairns et al., 2006).


Neural correlates of attitude change following positive and negative advertisements.

Kato J, Ide H, Kabashima I, Kadota H, Takano K, Kansaku K - Front Behav Neurosci (2009)

Tasks inside the MR machine. Three sessions of campaign advertisements and three sessions of cola advertisements were shown. After each session, the participants were asked which of the two candidates/brands they favoured. For both the campaign and cola advertisements, the first session consisted of positive advertisements for both candidates/brands. The candidate/brand favoured after the first session was attacked during the second session. The third session again consisted of positive advertisements for both candidates/brands, but the content differed from that of the first session. One advertisement session consisted of four segments of 30-s advertisements with each advertisement followed by a 30-s rest period.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2691152&req=5

Figure 1: Tasks inside the MR machine. Three sessions of campaign advertisements and three sessions of cola advertisements were shown. After each session, the participants were asked which of the two candidates/brands they favoured. For both the campaign and cola advertisements, the first session consisted of positive advertisements for both candidates/brands. The candidate/brand favoured after the first session was attacked during the second session. The third session again consisted of positive advertisements for both candidates/brands, but the content differed from that of the first session. One advertisement session consisted of four segments of 30-s advertisements with each advertisement followed by a 30-s rest period.
Mentions: We used videos from the 1992 US presidential campaign and ads for two cola brands for comparison. Participants spent three sessions viewing presidential campaign advertisements (Bush vs. Clinton) and three viewing cola advertisements (Coke® vs. Pepsi®) inside an MRI machine (Figure 1). The order of the six sessions (both political and commercial ads) was counterbalanced among the participants; about half the participants experienced the six sessions in the reverse order. After each session, they were asked which candidate (or cola brand) they favoured. For both the campaign and cola advertisements, positive advertisements about each candidate (or brand) were shown in the first session, followed by a second session of negative advertisements that attacked the candidate/brand of choice. The third session again showed positive advertisements for both sides, but the content differed from the first session. One advertisement session consisted of four segments of 30-s advertisements; each advertisement was followed by a 30-s rest period. For the political campaign advertisements, participants were asked in a post-task questionnaire to rate how (un)favourable they felt towards each candidate after each session. Using an analogy with thermometry for expressing cold- and warm-heartedness, they were instructed to give a rating of 50 [in a range from 0 (least favourable) to 100 (most favourable)] when they were neutral about a candidate. This rating was built on a measure of the so-called “feeling thermometer,” used by the Center for Political Studies, University of Michigan, to analyse presidential elections since 1968 (Weisberg and Miller, 1979), and studies of elections and social groups (Cairns et al., 2006).

Bottom Line: Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards.Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not) in the brain.This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Law and Politics, The University of Tokyo Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward others that are linked to social cognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments have presented videos from previous electoral campaigns and television commercials for major cola brands and then used the subjects' self-rated affinity toward political candidates as behavioural indicators. After viewing negative campaign videos, subjects showing stronger fMRI activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lowered their ratings of the candidate they originally supported more than did those with smaller fMRI signal changes in the same region. Subjects showing stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex tended to increase their ratings more than did those with less activation. The same regions were not activated by viewing negative advertisements for cola. Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not) in the brain. This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus