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Multivariate modeling of chromium-induced oxidative stress and biochemical changes in plants of Pistia stratiotes L.

Sinha S, Basant A, Malik A, Singh KP - Ecotoxicology (2009)

Bottom Line: Principal components analysis results suggested that malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), APX, non-protein thiols (NP-SH), cysteine, ascorbic acid, and Cr-accumulation are dominant in root tissues, whereas, protein and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) in shoots of the plant.Discriminant partial least squares analysis results further confirmed that MDA, SOD, NP-SH, cysteine, GPX, APX, ascorbic acid and Cr-accumulation dominated in the root tissues, while protein in the shoot.The multivariate approaches, thus, allowed for the interpretation of the induced biochemical changes in the plant tissues exposed to chromium, which otherwise using the conventional approaches is difficult.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation Group, National Botanical Research Institute (Council of Scientific & Industrial Research), Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, India. sinha_sarita52@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Biochemical changes in the plants of Pistia stratiotes L., a free floating macrophyte exposed to different concentrations of hexavalent chromium (0, 10, 40, 60, 80 and 160 microM) for 48, 96 and 144 h were studied. Chromium-induced oxidative stress in macrophyte was investigated using the multivariate modeling approaches. Cluster analysis rendered two fairly distinct clusters (roots and shoots) of similar characteristics in terms of their biochemical responses. Discriminant analysis identified ascorbate peroxidase (APX) as discriminating variable between the root and shoot tissues. Principal components analysis results suggested that malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), APX, non-protein thiols (NP-SH), cysteine, ascorbic acid, and Cr-accumulation are dominant in root tissues, whereas, protein and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) in shoots of the plant. Discriminant partial least squares analysis results further confirmed that MDA, SOD, NP-SH, cysteine, GPX, APX, ascorbic acid and Cr-accumulation dominated in the root tissues, while protein in the shoot. Three-way analysis helped in visualizing simultaneous influence of metal concentration and exposure duration on biochemical variables in plant tissues. The multivariate approaches, thus, allowed for the interpretation of the induced biochemical changes in the plant tissues exposed to chromium, which otherwise using the conventional approaches is difficult.

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Dendrogram showing clustering of root and shoot tissue samples of the chromium exposed plants of P. stratiotes
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Fig1: Dendrogram showing clustering of root and shoot tissue samples of the chromium exposed plants of P. stratiotes

Mentions: Cluster analysis (CA) was performed to identify the root and shoot responses for the Cr-induced oxidative stress in respective tissues on the basis of similarities/dissimilarities in their biochemical responses. CA rendered a dendrogram (Fig. 1), where all the fifteen combinations (concentrations and durations) corresponding to the root and shoot tissues of the plant were fairly grouped into two statistically significant clusters at (Dlink/Dmax) × 100 < 60. The clustering procedure generated two groups (shoots and roots), as the samples within these groups have similar characteristic features and biochemical responses, whereas, dissimilarities between those belonging to the root and shoot tissues. The CA results suggested altogether different responses for the metal-induced stress in root and shoot tissues of the plant. The plants exposed to different Cr concentrations take up metal through their root system and initially accumulate building up high level in root tissues. It has also been reported that most of the chromium taken up by the plants was retained in the roots (Singh et al. 2004b, c; Yu and Gu 2008). Most plants restrict metal transport across the root endodermis (stele), and removing any mobile ions in the xylem by means of storage in cell walls and vacuoles, or binding by the metal-binding proteins such as metallothionines or phytochelatins (MacFarlane and Burchett 2000). A metal concentration gradient, thus build up between the root and shoot tissues of the exposed plants may lead to difference in setting up and magnitude of various biochemical responses in these tissues.Fig. 1


Multivariate modeling of chromium-induced oxidative stress and biochemical changes in plants of Pistia stratiotes L.

Sinha S, Basant A, Malik A, Singh KP - Ecotoxicology (2009)

Dendrogram showing clustering of root and shoot tissue samples of the chromium exposed plants of P. stratiotes
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2690848&req=5

Fig1: Dendrogram showing clustering of root and shoot tissue samples of the chromium exposed plants of P. stratiotes
Mentions: Cluster analysis (CA) was performed to identify the root and shoot responses for the Cr-induced oxidative stress in respective tissues on the basis of similarities/dissimilarities in their biochemical responses. CA rendered a dendrogram (Fig. 1), where all the fifteen combinations (concentrations and durations) corresponding to the root and shoot tissues of the plant were fairly grouped into two statistically significant clusters at (Dlink/Dmax) × 100 < 60. The clustering procedure generated two groups (shoots and roots), as the samples within these groups have similar characteristic features and biochemical responses, whereas, dissimilarities between those belonging to the root and shoot tissues. The CA results suggested altogether different responses for the metal-induced stress in root and shoot tissues of the plant. The plants exposed to different Cr concentrations take up metal through their root system and initially accumulate building up high level in root tissues. It has also been reported that most of the chromium taken up by the plants was retained in the roots (Singh et al. 2004b, c; Yu and Gu 2008). Most plants restrict metal transport across the root endodermis (stele), and removing any mobile ions in the xylem by means of storage in cell walls and vacuoles, or binding by the metal-binding proteins such as metallothionines or phytochelatins (MacFarlane and Burchett 2000). A metal concentration gradient, thus build up between the root and shoot tissues of the exposed plants may lead to difference in setting up and magnitude of various biochemical responses in these tissues.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Principal components analysis results suggested that malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), APX, non-protein thiols (NP-SH), cysteine, ascorbic acid, and Cr-accumulation are dominant in root tissues, whereas, protein and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) in shoots of the plant.Discriminant partial least squares analysis results further confirmed that MDA, SOD, NP-SH, cysteine, GPX, APX, ascorbic acid and Cr-accumulation dominated in the root tissues, while protein in the shoot.The multivariate approaches, thus, allowed for the interpretation of the induced biochemical changes in the plant tissues exposed to chromium, which otherwise using the conventional approaches is difficult.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation Group, National Botanical Research Institute (Council of Scientific & Industrial Research), Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, India. sinha_sarita52@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Biochemical changes in the plants of Pistia stratiotes L., a free floating macrophyte exposed to different concentrations of hexavalent chromium (0, 10, 40, 60, 80 and 160 microM) for 48, 96 and 144 h were studied. Chromium-induced oxidative stress in macrophyte was investigated using the multivariate modeling approaches. Cluster analysis rendered two fairly distinct clusters (roots and shoots) of similar characteristics in terms of their biochemical responses. Discriminant analysis identified ascorbate peroxidase (APX) as discriminating variable between the root and shoot tissues. Principal components analysis results suggested that malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), APX, non-protein thiols (NP-SH), cysteine, ascorbic acid, and Cr-accumulation are dominant in root tissues, whereas, protein and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) in shoots of the plant. Discriminant partial least squares analysis results further confirmed that MDA, SOD, NP-SH, cysteine, GPX, APX, ascorbic acid and Cr-accumulation dominated in the root tissues, while protein in the shoot. Three-way analysis helped in visualizing simultaneous influence of metal concentration and exposure duration on biochemical variables in plant tissues. The multivariate approaches, thus, allowed for the interpretation of the induced biochemical changes in the plant tissues exposed to chromium, which otherwise using the conventional approaches is difficult.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus