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Prediction of type III secretion signals in genomes of gram-negative bacteria.

Löwer M, Schneider G - PLoS ONE (2009)

Bottom Line: Common sequence features were most pronounced in the first 30 amino acids of the effector sequences.Classification accuracy yielded a cross-validated Matthews correlation of 0.63 and allowed for genome-wide prediction of potential type III secretion system effectors in 705 proteobacterial genomes (12% predicted candidates protein), their chromosomes (11%) and plasmids (13%), as well as 213 Firmicute genomes (7%).We present a signal prediction method together with comprehensive survey of potential type III secretion system effectors extracted from 918 published bacterial genomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Chair for Chem- and Bioinformatics, Frankfurt, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Background: Pathogenic bacteria infecting both animals as well as plants use various mechanisms to transport virulence factors across their cell membranes and channel these proteins into the infected host cell. The type III secretion system represents such a mechanism. Proteins transported via this pathway ("effector proteins") have to be distinguished from all other proteins that are not exported from the bacterial cell. Although a special targeting signal at the N-terminal end of effector proteins has been proposed in literature its exact characteristics remain unknown.

Methodology/principal findings: In this study, we demonstrate that the signals encoded in the sequences of type III secretion system effectors can be consistently recognized and predicted by machine learning techniques. Known protein effectors were compiled from the literature and sequence databases, and served as training data for artificial neural networks and support vector machine classifiers. Common sequence features were most pronounced in the first 30 amino acids of the effector sequences. Classification accuracy yielded a cross-validated Matthews correlation of 0.63 and allowed for genome-wide prediction of potential type III secretion system effectors in 705 proteobacterial genomes (12% predicted candidates protein), their chromosomes (11%) and plasmids (13%), as well as 213 Firmicute genomes (7%).

Conclusions/significance: We present a signal prediction method together with comprehensive survey of potential type III secretion system effectors extracted from 918 published bacterial genomes. Our study demonstrates that the analyzed signal features are common across a wide range of species, and provides a substantial basis for the identification of exported pathogenic proteins as targets for future therapeutic intervention. The prediction software is publicly accessible from our web server (www.modlab.org).

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T3SS effector proteins contain a targeting signal in their N-terminal sequence portion.Performance results of the first round of neural network cross-validation for sequence length 30 and varying numbers of hidden neurons (HN) in the neural network classifiers and window sizes are shown. Values are averaged over the cross-validation folds. The data for lengths 10, 20, 40 and 50 can be found in Supplementary Figure S1.
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pone-0005917-g003: T3SS effector proteins contain a targeting signal in their N-terminal sequence portion.Performance results of the first round of neural network cross-validation for sequence length 30 and varying numbers of hidden neurons (HN) in the neural network classifiers and window sizes are shown. Values are averaged over the cross-validation folds. The data for lengths 10, 20, 40 and 50 can be found in Supplementary Figure S1.

Mentions: Maximal average cross-validation performance was achieved for L = 30 (Figure 3), W = 25 and seven hidden neurons in the ANN (mcc = 0.57±0.04), although all results with more than four hidden neurons are comparable. Two more training rounds were executed (Supplementary Figures S2 and S3), using L = 25 and L = 35 for the second, and L = 31 to 34 for the third pass. Neither of these calculations yielded a higher performance than the maximum for L = 30, so the respective parameter values were employed by the final model, which was obtained by 100 training runs with randomly shuffled training data and early stop validation but no cross-validation. The performance of the best model on the complete training data is presented in Table 1. The higher accuracy likely results for three reasons: i) more data was included in the training, ii) randomized training allows for finding other performance optima, and iii) the scoring of individual sequence windows was changed to the average score over all windows.


Prediction of type III secretion signals in genomes of gram-negative bacteria.

Löwer M, Schneider G - PLoS ONE (2009)

T3SS effector proteins contain a targeting signal in their N-terminal sequence portion.Performance results of the first round of neural network cross-validation for sequence length 30 and varying numbers of hidden neurons (HN) in the neural network classifiers and window sizes are shown. Values are averaged over the cross-validation folds. The data for lengths 10, 20, 40 and 50 can be found in Supplementary Figure S1.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2690842&req=5

pone-0005917-g003: T3SS effector proteins contain a targeting signal in their N-terminal sequence portion.Performance results of the first round of neural network cross-validation for sequence length 30 and varying numbers of hidden neurons (HN) in the neural network classifiers and window sizes are shown. Values are averaged over the cross-validation folds. The data for lengths 10, 20, 40 and 50 can be found in Supplementary Figure S1.
Mentions: Maximal average cross-validation performance was achieved for L = 30 (Figure 3), W = 25 and seven hidden neurons in the ANN (mcc = 0.57±0.04), although all results with more than four hidden neurons are comparable. Two more training rounds were executed (Supplementary Figures S2 and S3), using L = 25 and L = 35 for the second, and L = 31 to 34 for the third pass. Neither of these calculations yielded a higher performance than the maximum for L = 30, so the respective parameter values were employed by the final model, which was obtained by 100 training runs with randomly shuffled training data and early stop validation but no cross-validation. The performance of the best model on the complete training data is presented in Table 1. The higher accuracy likely results for three reasons: i) more data was included in the training, ii) randomized training allows for finding other performance optima, and iii) the scoring of individual sequence windows was changed to the average score over all windows.

Bottom Line: Common sequence features were most pronounced in the first 30 amino acids of the effector sequences.Classification accuracy yielded a cross-validated Matthews correlation of 0.63 and allowed for genome-wide prediction of potential type III secretion system effectors in 705 proteobacterial genomes (12% predicted candidates protein), their chromosomes (11%) and plasmids (13%), as well as 213 Firmicute genomes (7%).We present a signal prediction method together with comprehensive survey of potential type III secretion system effectors extracted from 918 published bacterial genomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Chair for Chem- and Bioinformatics, Frankfurt, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Background: Pathogenic bacteria infecting both animals as well as plants use various mechanisms to transport virulence factors across their cell membranes and channel these proteins into the infected host cell. The type III secretion system represents such a mechanism. Proteins transported via this pathway ("effector proteins") have to be distinguished from all other proteins that are not exported from the bacterial cell. Although a special targeting signal at the N-terminal end of effector proteins has been proposed in literature its exact characteristics remain unknown.

Methodology/principal findings: In this study, we demonstrate that the signals encoded in the sequences of type III secretion system effectors can be consistently recognized and predicted by machine learning techniques. Known protein effectors were compiled from the literature and sequence databases, and served as training data for artificial neural networks and support vector machine classifiers. Common sequence features were most pronounced in the first 30 amino acids of the effector sequences. Classification accuracy yielded a cross-validated Matthews correlation of 0.63 and allowed for genome-wide prediction of potential type III secretion system effectors in 705 proteobacterial genomes (12% predicted candidates protein), their chromosomes (11%) and plasmids (13%), as well as 213 Firmicute genomes (7%).

Conclusions/significance: We present a signal prediction method together with comprehensive survey of potential type III secretion system effectors extracted from 918 published bacterial genomes. Our study demonstrates that the analyzed signal features are common across a wide range of species, and provides a substantial basis for the identification of exported pathogenic proteins as targets for future therapeutic intervention. The prediction software is publicly accessible from our web server (www.modlab.org).

Show MeSH