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Effect of body fat distribution on the transcription response to dietary fat interventions.

Radonjic M, van Erk MJ, Pasman WJ, Wortelboer HM, Hendriks HF, van Ommen B - Genes Nutr (2009)

Bottom Line: Combination of decreased energy expenditure and increased food intake results in fat accumulation either in the abdominal site (upper body obesity, UBO) or on the hips (lower body obesity, LBO).In this study, we used microarray gene expression profiling of adipose tissue biopsies to investigate the effect of body fat distribution on the physiological response to two dietary fat interventions.The body fat distribution is, therefore, an important parameter to consider when providing personalized dietary recommendation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: TNO Quality of Life, Business Unit Biosciences, P.O. Box 360, 3700 AJ, Zeist, The Netherlands, marijana.radonjic@tno.nl.

ABSTRACT
Combination of decreased energy expenditure and increased food intake results in fat accumulation either in the abdominal site (upper body obesity, UBO) or on the hips (lower body obesity, LBO). In this study, we used microarray gene expression profiling of adipose tissue biopsies to investigate the effect of body fat distribution on the physiological response to two dietary fat interventions. Mildly obese UBO and LBO male subjects (n = 12, waist-to-hip ratio range 0.93-1.12) were subjected to consumption of diets containing predominantly either long-chain fatty acids (PUFA) or medium-chain fatty acids (MCT). The results revealed (1) a large variation in transcription response to MCT and PUFA diets between UBO and LBO subjects, (2) higher sensitivity of UBO subjects to MCT/PUFA dietary intervention and (3) the upregulation of immune and apoptotic pathways and downregulation of metabolic pathways (oxidative, lipid, carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism) in UBO subjects when consuming MCT compared with PUFA diet. In conclusion, we report that despite the recommendation of MCT-based diet for improving obesity phenotype, this diet may have adverse effect on inflammatory and metabolic status of UBO subjects. The body fat distribution is, therefore, an important parameter to consider when providing personalized dietary recommendation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Hierarchical clustering of (1) pathway’s T-scores in MCT versus PUFA comparisons and (2) subjects according to their pathway activity profiles. a All pathways significantly (E < 0.05) differentially affected between two treatments in at least one of the subjects (n = 547). b Sub-cluster containing apoptotic and immune pathways. c Sub-cluster containing mitochondrial and metabolic pathways. Color coding: Red positive T-values (up-regulation), Blue negative T-values (down-regulation)
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Fig2: Hierarchical clustering of (1) pathway’s T-scores in MCT versus PUFA comparisons and (2) subjects according to their pathway activity profiles. a All pathways significantly (E < 0.05) differentially affected between two treatments in at least one of the subjects (n = 547). b Sub-cluster containing apoptotic and immune pathways. c Sub-cluster containing mitochondrial and metabolic pathways. Color coding: Red positive T-values (up-regulation), Blue negative T-values (down-regulation)

Mentions: The effects of body fat distribution on the changes in biological processes upon consuming MCT and PUFA spread were analyzed by T-profiler [2]. This method enables subject-specific identification of biological processes that are significantly induced or repressed by dietary interventions. To increase the robustness of the analysis, four collections of gene sets associated with various biological processes were used for analysis as described in “Methods and Materials” section. The resulting T-scores represent relative up- and down-regulation of pathways in MCT versus PUFA comparison. In total, 547 pathways were identified as significantly regulated in at least one of 11 subjects (Fig. 2). The T-scores were hierarchically clustered, resulting in aggregation of similarly regulated pathways. In addition, hierarchical clustering of subjects based on their pathway profiles (Fig. 2a) showed correlation of subject’s responses to MCT compared to PUFA. In agreement with PCA and statistical analysis, subjects with tendency to LBO (WHR 0.93–0.97, subjects S9, S13, S4 and S11) reacted differently to the dietary fat intervention than the subjects with tendency to UBO (WHR 0.99–1.12, subjects S7, S8, S3, S5, S10, S2 and S1). Focusing on particular sub-clusters revealed that the subjects with higher WHR have higher expression of the apoptotic, inflammatory and immune response pathways (Fig. 2b) and lower expression of mitochondrial, oxidative, fatty acid and amino acid metabolic pathways (Fig. 2c) than the subjects with lower WHR when they are consuming MCT compared to PUFA spread. These findings underscore the impact of the body fat distribution on the important factors in obesity-associated disorders, such as inflammation and energy metabolism of adipose tissue. Observed differential regulation of these processes by MCT and PUFA diets in UBO and LBO subjects imply that harmonization of a diet composition with the body fat distribution profile is necessary for improving subject’s obesity status by dietary intervention.Fig. 2


Effect of body fat distribution on the transcription response to dietary fat interventions.

Radonjic M, van Erk MJ, Pasman WJ, Wortelboer HM, Hendriks HF, van Ommen B - Genes Nutr (2009)

Hierarchical clustering of (1) pathway’s T-scores in MCT versus PUFA comparisons and (2) subjects according to their pathway activity profiles. a All pathways significantly (E < 0.05) differentially affected between two treatments in at least one of the subjects (n = 547). b Sub-cluster containing apoptotic and immune pathways. c Sub-cluster containing mitochondrial and metabolic pathways. Color coding: Red positive T-values (up-regulation), Blue negative T-values (down-regulation)
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2690730&req=5

Fig2: Hierarchical clustering of (1) pathway’s T-scores in MCT versus PUFA comparisons and (2) subjects according to their pathway activity profiles. a All pathways significantly (E < 0.05) differentially affected between two treatments in at least one of the subjects (n = 547). b Sub-cluster containing apoptotic and immune pathways. c Sub-cluster containing mitochondrial and metabolic pathways. Color coding: Red positive T-values (up-regulation), Blue negative T-values (down-regulation)
Mentions: The effects of body fat distribution on the changes in biological processes upon consuming MCT and PUFA spread were analyzed by T-profiler [2]. This method enables subject-specific identification of biological processes that are significantly induced or repressed by dietary interventions. To increase the robustness of the analysis, four collections of gene sets associated with various biological processes were used for analysis as described in “Methods and Materials” section. The resulting T-scores represent relative up- and down-regulation of pathways in MCT versus PUFA comparison. In total, 547 pathways were identified as significantly regulated in at least one of 11 subjects (Fig. 2). The T-scores were hierarchically clustered, resulting in aggregation of similarly regulated pathways. In addition, hierarchical clustering of subjects based on their pathway profiles (Fig. 2a) showed correlation of subject’s responses to MCT compared to PUFA. In agreement with PCA and statistical analysis, subjects with tendency to LBO (WHR 0.93–0.97, subjects S9, S13, S4 and S11) reacted differently to the dietary fat intervention than the subjects with tendency to UBO (WHR 0.99–1.12, subjects S7, S8, S3, S5, S10, S2 and S1). Focusing on particular sub-clusters revealed that the subjects with higher WHR have higher expression of the apoptotic, inflammatory and immune response pathways (Fig. 2b) and lower expression of mitochondrial, oxidative, fatty acid and amino acid metabolic pathways (Fig. 2c) than the subjects with lower WHR when they are consuming MCT compared to PUFA spread. These findings underscore the impact of the body fat distribution on the important factors in obesity-associated disorders, such as inflammation and energy metabolism of adipose tissue. Observed differential regulation of these processes by MCT and PUFA diets in UBO and LBO subjects imply that harmonization of a diet composition with the body fat distribution profile is necessary for improving subject’s obesity status by dietary intervention.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: Combination of decreased energy expenditure and increased food intake results in fat accumulation either in the abdominal site (upper body obesity, UBO) or on the hips (lower body obesity, LBO).In this study, we used microarray gene expression profiling of adipose tissue biopsies to investigate the effect of body fat distribution on the physiological response to two dietary fat interventions.The body fat distribution is, therefore, an important parameter to consider when providing personalized dietary recommendation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: TNO Quality of Life, Business Unit Biosciences, P.O. Box 360, 3700 AJ, Zeist, The Netherlands, marijana.radonjic@tno.nl.

ABSTRACT
Combination of decreased energy expenditure and increased food intake results in fat accumulation either in the abdominal site (upper body obesity, UBO) or on the hips (lower body obesity, LBO). In this study, we used microarray gene expression profiling of adipose tissue biopsies to investigate the effect of body fat distribution on the physiological response to two dietary fat interventions. Mildly obese UBO and LBO male subjects (n = 12, waist-to-hip ratio range 0.93-1.12) were subjected to consumption of diets containing predominantly either long-chain fatty acids (PUFA) or medium-chain fatty acids (MCT). The results revealed (1) a large variation in transcription response to MCT and PUFA diets between UBO and LBO subjects, (2) higher sensitivity of UBO subjects to MCT/PUFA dietary intervention and (3) the upregulation of immune and apoptotic pathways and downregulation of metabolic pathways (oxidative, lipid, carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism) in UBO subjects when consuming MCT compared with PUFA diet. In conclusion, we report that despite the recommendation of MCT-based diet for improving obesity phenotype, this diet may have adverse effect on inflammatory and metabolic status of UBO subjects. The body fat distribution is, therefore, an important parameter to consider when providing personalized dietary recommendation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus