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The dynamics of T-cell receptor repertoire diversity following thymus transplantation for DiGeorge anomaly.

Ciupe SM, Devlin BH, Markert ML, Kepler TB - PLoS Comput. Biol. (2009)

Bottom Line: Although it has been demonstrated that disruption of either of these pathways has a profound effect on T-cell development, we do not yet have an understanding of the dynamical interactions of these pathways in their joint shaping of the T cell repertoire.Complete DiGeorge Anomaly is a developmental abnormality that results in the failure of the thymus to develop, absence of T cells, and profound immune deficiency.The estimated strength of this TCR-specific regulation is sufficient to ensure rapid establishment of TCR repertoire diversity in the early phase of T cell population growth, and to maintain TCR repertoire diversity in the face of substantial clonal expansion-induced perturbation from the steady state.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Computational Immunology, Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

ABSTRACT
T cell populations are regulated both by signals specific to the T-cell receptor (TCR) and by signals and resources, such as cytokines and space, that act independently of TCR specificity. Although it has been demonstrated that disruption of either of these pathways has a profound effect on T-cell development, we do not yet have an understanding of the dynamical interactions of these pathways in their joint shaping of the T cell repertoire. Complete DiGeorge Anomaly is a developmental abnormality that results in the failure of the thymus to develop, absence of T cells, and profound immune deficiency. After receiving thymic tissue grafts, patients suffering from DiGeorge anomaly develop T cells derived from their own precursors but matured in the donor tissue. We followed three DiGeorge patients after thymus transplantation to utilize the remarkable opportunity these subjects provide to elucidate human T-cell developmental regulation. Our goal is the determination of the respective roles of TCR-specific vs. TCR-nonspecific regulatory signals in the growth of these emerging T-cell populations. During the course of the study, we measured peripheral blood T-cell concentrations, TCRbeta V gene-segment usage and CDR3-length spectratypes over two years or more for each of the subjects. We find, through statistical analysis based on a novel stochastic population-dynamic T-cell model, that the carrying capacity corresponding to TCR-specific resources is approximately 1000-fold larger than that of TCR-nonspecific resources, implying that the size of the peripheral T-cell pool at steady state is determined almost entirely by TCR-nonspecific mechanisms. Nevertheless, the diversity of the TCR repertoire depends crucially on TCR-specific regulation. The estimated strength of this TCR-specific regulation is sufficient to ensure rapid establishment of TCR repertoire diversity in the early phase of T cell population growth, and to maintain TCR repertoire diversity in the face of substantial clonal expansion-induced perturbation from the steady state.

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Clone sizes, T cell concentrations and TCR repertoire diversity.Clone sizes over time as computed under the model of Eqs.(1,4)(A–C) and the corresponding T cell concentrations (D) and TCRrepertoire diversity (E) as a function of time past transplantation.computed under the model of Eqs.(1,4) as a function of time pasttransplantation. Parameter  (see Model section) is varied asindicated while all other parameters are held constant. The higher , the more limiting are TCR-specific resources.“Emigrant number” refers to the order in whichclones leave the thymus and enter the periphery; emigrant number 1 isthe first clone to arise, etc.
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pcbi-1000396-g001: Clone sizes, T cell concentrations and TCR repertoire diversity.Clone sizes over time as computed under the model of Eqs.(1,4)(A–C) and the corresponding T cell concentrations (D) and TCRrepertoire diversity (E) as a function of time past transplantation.computed under the model of Eqs.(1,4) as a function of time pasttransplantation. Parameter (see Model section) is varied asindicated while all other parameters are held constant. The higher , the more limiting are TCR-specific resources.“Emigrant number” refers to the order in whichclones leave the thymus and enter the periphery; emigrant number 1 isthe first clone to arise, etc.

Mentions: To illustrate the connection between these alternative homeostatic mechanisms andthe observations one might make on the DiGeorge subjects, consider the followingtwo scenarios as a thought experiment. First, suppose that TCR-specificresources such as spMHC are not limiting, either because they are produced ingreat excess or because they are rendered unnecessary. Under these conditions,homeostasis will be due exclusively to competition for TCR-nonspecificresources. The first T cells leaving the thymus will expand rapidly, consumingthe TCR-nonspecific resources required for growth of their own growth and forthe growth of all other clones. Subsequent T cells leaving the thymus willencounter a more impoverished environment and will grow more slowly, leading toearly dominance of one or a small number of early clones and therefore a limitedTCR repertoire (Figure 1).Conversely, if TCR-nonspecific resources such as cytokines were not limiting,and that homeostasis therefore depended solely on competition for TCR-specificsignaling, the only cellular competition would be among T cells of the sameclonotype. In this case, each clone will grow to roughly the same self-limitingsize regardless of when its founder emigrates from the thymus. In this case, TCRrepertoire diversity will grow at the greatest possible rate, all other thingsbeing equal (Figure 1).


The dynamics of T-cell receptor repertoire diversity following thymus transplantation for DiGeorge anomaly.

Ciupe SM, Devlin BH, Markert ML, Kepler TB - PLoS Comput. Biol. (2009)

Clone sizes, T cell concentrations and TCR repertoire diversity.Clone sizes over time as computed under the model of Eqs.(1,4)(A–C) and the corresponding T cell concentrations (D) and TCRrepertoire diversity (E) as a function of time past transplantation.computed under the model of Eqs.(1,4) as a function of time pasttransplantation. Parameter  (see Model section) is varied asindicated while all other parameters are held constant. The higher , the more limiting are TCR-specific resources.“Emigrant number” refers to the order in whichclones leave the thymus and enter the periphery; emigrant number 1 isthe first clone to arise, etc.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2690399&req=5

pcbi-1000396-g001: Clone sizes, T cell concentrations and TCR repertoire diversity.Clone sizes over time as computed under the model of Eqs.(1,4)(A–C) and the corresponding T cell concentrations (D) and TCRrepertoire diversity (E) as a function of time past transplantation.computed under the model of Eqs.(1,4) as a function of time pasttransplantation. Parameter (see Model section) is varied asindicated while all other parameters are held constant. The higher , the more limiting are TCR-specific resources.“Emigrant number” refers to the order in whichclones leave the thymus and enter the periphery; emigrant number 1 isthe first clone to arise, etc.
Mentions: To illustrate the connection between these alternative homeostatic mechanisms andthe observations one might make on the DiGeorge subjects, consider the followingtwo scenarios as a thought experiment. First, suppose that TCR-specificresources such as spMHC are not limiting, either because they are produced ingreat excess or because they are rendered unnecessary. Under these conditions,homeostasis will be due exclusively to competition for TCR-nonspecificresources. The first T cells leaving the thymus will expand rapidly, consumingthe TCR-nonspecific resources required for growth of their own growth and forthe growth of all other clones. Subsequent T cells leaving the thymus willencounter a more impoverished environment and will grow more slowly, leading toearly dominance of one or a small number of early clones and therefore a limitedTCR repertoire (Figure 1).Conversely, if TCR-nonspecific resources such as cytokines were not limiting,and that homeostasis therefore depended solely on competition for TCR-specificsignaling, the only cellular competition would be among T cells of the sameclonotype. In this case, each clone will grow to roughly the same self-limitingsize regardless of when its founder emigrates from the thymus. In this case, TCRrepertoire diversity will grow at the greatest possible rate, all other thingsbeing equal (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Although it has been demonstrated that disruption of either of these pathways has a profound effect on T-cell development, we do not yet have an understanding of the dynamical interactions of these pathways in their joint shaping of the T cell repertoire.Complete DiGeorge Anomaly is a developmental abnormality that results in the failure of the thymus to develop, absence of T cells, and profound immune deficiency.The estimated strength of this TCR-specific regulation is sufficient to ensure rapid establishment of TCR repertoire diversity in the early phase of T cell population growth, and to maintain TCR repertoire diversity in the face of substantial clonal expansion-induced perturbation from the steady state.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Computational Immunology, Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

ABSTRACT
T cell populations are regulated both by signals specific to the T-cell receptor (TCR) and by signals and resources, such as cytokines and space, that act independently of TCR specificity. Although it has been demonstrated that disruption of either of these pathways has a profound effect on T-cell development, we do not yet have an understanding of the dynamical interactions of these pathways in their joint shaping of the T cell repertoire. Complete DiGeorge Anomaly is a developmental abnormality that results in the failure of the thymus to develop, absence of T cells, and profound immune deficiency. After receiving thymic tissue grafts, patients suffering from DiGeorge anomaly develop T cells derived from their own precursors but matured in the donor tissue. We followed three DiGeorge patients after thymus transplantation to utilize the remarkable opportunity these subjects provide to elucidate human T-cell developmental regulation. Our goal is the determination of the respective roles of TCR-specific vs. TCR-nonspecific regulatory signals in the growth of these emerging T-cell populations. During the course of the study, we measured peripheral blood T-cell concentrations, TCRbeta V gene-segment usage and CDR3-length spectratypes over two years or more for each of the subjects. We find, through statistical analysis based on a novel stochastic population-dynamic T-cell model, that the carrying capacity corresponding to TCR-specific resources is approximately 1000-fold larger than that of TCR-nonspecific resources, implying that the size of the peripheral T-cell pool at steady state is determined almost entirely by TCR-nonspecific mechanisms. Nevertheless, the diversity of the TCR repertoire depends crucially on TCR-specific regulation. The estimated strength of this TCR-specific regulation is sufficient to ensure rapid establishment of TCR repertoire diversity in the early phase of T cell population growth, and to maintain TCR repertoire diversity in the face of substantial clonal expansion-induced perturbation from the steady state.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus