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Microbial inactivation properties of a new antimicrobial/antithrombotic catheter lock solution (citrate/methylene blue/parabens).

Steczko J, Ash SR, Nivens DE, Brewer L, Winger RK - Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (2009)

Bottom Line: These effects were compared to the antimicrobial properties of heparin at 2500 units/ml.In contrast, heparin had a minimal effect on planktonic or biofilm organisms.The tested catheter lock may have usefulness in preventing bacterial colonization of haemodialysis catheters and diminishing the incidence of catheter-related bacteraemia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: R&D, Ash Access Technology, Inc., Lafayette, IN, USA. jsteczko@ashaccess.com

ABSTRACT

Background: Microbial infections are the most serious complications associated with indwelling central venous catheters. A catheter lock solution that is both antibacterial and antithrombotic is needed. The goal of this study was to determine whether a new catheter lock solution containing citrate, methylene blue and parabens has antimicrobial properties against planktonic bacteria and against sessile bacteria within a biofilm. These effects were compared to the antimicrobial properties of heparin at 2500 units/ml.

Methods: The tested solution (C/MB/P comprising 7% sodium citrate, 0.05% methylene blue and 0.165% parabens) and individual components were challenged against gram-positive and gram-negative organisms and fungi. Control solutions were heparin with preservatives. Studies included evaluation of eradication of planktonic bacteria and sessile organisms in a biofilm grown on polymeric and glass coupons. Biofilm samples were inspected by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and vital stains.

Results: The C/MB/P solution, contrary to heparin, kills most tested planktonic microorganisms within 1 h of incubation. All tested organisms have an MIC of 25% or less of the original concentration of a new catheter lock. Bacteria strains did not develop resistance over more than 40 passages of culture suspensions. The C/MB/P solution is able to kill nearly all sessile bacteria in biofilm growth on plastic or glass discs in 1 h. Microscopic methods demonstrated extensive physical elimination of biofilm deposits from treated coupons. In contrast, heparin had a minimal effect on planktonic or biofilm organisms.

Conclusions: The new multicomponent lock solution has strong antimicrobial properties against both planktonic and sessile microorganisms. By comparison, heparin with preservative has weak antibacterial properties against planktonic and biofilm bacteria. The tested catheter lock may have usefulness in preventing bacterial colonization of haemodialysis catheters and diminishing the incidence of catheter-related bacteraemia.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Antimicrobial effectiveness C/MB/P and its components in the presence of media and albumin versus Staphylococcus aureus (A), Escherichia coli (B) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (C).
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Figure 2: Antimicrobial effectiveness C/MB/P and its components in the presence of media and albumin versus Staphylococcus aureus (A), Escherichia coli (B) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (C).

Mentions: The C/MB/P solution is composed of several compounds. Each of them, if used separately in the concentration employed in the final product, discloses a weak antimicrobial effect. This effect depends upon the strain of microorganisms and additional composites in the mixture. For example, if a small volume of broth were added to the reaction mixture, the life of cells might be prolonged. Serum proteins like albumin also extend the life span of microbes. Figure 2 represents data on the antibacterial effects of various components of the C/MB/P solution challenged alone and together, against three selected bacteria strains. In the case of S. aureus (Figure 2A), a small trend of inhibition of cell growth in the presence of each compound individually is visible over the period of 24 h. However, the C/MB/P acts much faster, lowering the concentration of bacteria by a few logs in 30 min. Furthermore, after 24 h viable bacteria were not detected (P < 0.01, C/MB/P versus sodium citrate alone). The combination of citrate and MB progressively reduced the E. coli count (Figure 2B) to an undetectable level after 24 h, but the C/MB/P acts more quickly. The exposure of E. coli for only 30 min to C/MB/P resulted in total elimination of living cells, as judged by the ability to form colonies on an agar plate (P = 0.07, C/MB/P versus sodium citrate alone). The P. aeruginosa strain (Figure 2C) was completely killed after 1–2-h exposure to C/MB/P (P < 0.05 for C/MB/P versus sodium citrate alone). The P. aeruginosa strain seems to be resistant to citrate at pH 6.2 or citrate/MB mixture. Overall, these results strongly suggest synergistic rather than additive effects among components in tested product.


Microbial inactivation properties of a new antimicrobial/antithrombotic catheter lock solution (citrate/methylene blue/parabens).

Steczko J, Ash SR, Nivens DE, Brewer L, Winger RK - Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (2009)

Antimicrobial effectiveness C/MB/P and its components in the presence of media and albumin versus Staphylococcus aureus (A), Escherichia coli (B) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (C).
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2684753&req=5

Figure 2: Antimicrobial effectiveness C/MB/P and its components in the presence of media and albumin versus Staphylococcus aureus (A), Escherichia coli (B) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (C).
Mentions: The C/MB/P solution is composed of several compounds. Each of them, if used separately in the concentration employed in the final product, discloses a weak antimicrobial effect. This effect depends upon the strain of microorganisms and additional composites in the mixture. For example, if a small volume of broth were added to the reaction mixture, the life of cells might be prolonged. Serum proteins like albumin also extend the life span of microbes. Figure 2 represents data on the antibacterial effects of various components of the C/MB/P solution challenged alone and together, against three selected bacteria strains. In the case of S. aureus (Figure 2A), a small trend of inhibition of cell growth in the presence of each compound individually is visible over the period of 24 h. However, the C/MB/P acts much faster, lowering the concentration of bacteria by a few logs in 30 min. Furthermore, after 24 h viable bacteria were not detected (P < 0.01, C/MB/P versus sodium citrate alone). The combination of citrate and MB progressively reduced the E. coli count (Figure 2B) to an undetectable level after 24 h, but the C/MB/P acts more quickly. The exposure of E. coli for only 30 min to C/MB/P resulted in total elimination of living cells, as judged by the ability to form colonies on an agar plate (P = 0.07, C/MB/P versus sodium citrate alone). The P. aeruginosa strain (Figure 2C) was completely killed after 1–2-h exposure to C/MB/P (P < 0.05 for C/MB/P versus sodium citrate alone). The P. aeruginosa strain seems to be resistant to citrate at pH 6.2 or citrate/MB mixture. Overall, these results strongly suggest synergistic rather than additive effects among components in tested product.

Bottom Line: These effects were compared to the antimicrobial properties of heparin at 2500 units/ml.In contrast, heparin had a minimal effect on planktonic or biofilm organisms.The tested catheter lock may have usefulness in preventing bacterial colonization of haemodialysis catheters and diminishing the incidence of catheter-related bacteraemia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: R&D, Ash Access Technology, Inc., Lafayette, IN, USA. jsteczko@ashaccess.com

ABSTRACT

Background: Microbial infections are the most serious complications associated with indwelling central venous catheters. A catheter lock solution that is both antibacterial and antithrombotic is needed. The goal of this study was to determine whether a new catheter lock solution containing citrate, methylene blue and parabens has antimicrobial properties against planktonic bacteria and against sessile bacteria within a biofilm. These effects were compared to the antimicrobial properties of heparin at 2500 units/ml.

Methods: The tested solution (C/MB/P comprising 7% sodium citrate, 0.05% methylene blue and 0.165% parabens) and individual components were challenged against gram-positive and gram-negative organisms and fungi. Control solutions were heparin with preservatives. Studies included evaluation of eradication of planktonic bacteria and sessile organisms in a biofilm grown on polymeric and glass coupons. Biofilm samples were inspected by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and vital stains.

Results: The C/MB/P solution, contrary to heparin, kills most tested planktonic microorganisms within 1 h of incubation. All tested organisms have an MIC of 25% or less of the original concentration of a new catheter lock. Bacteria strains did not develop resistance over more than 40 passages of culture suspensions. The C/MB/P solution is able to kill nearly all sessile bacteria in biofilm growth on plastic or glass discs in 1 h. Microscopic methods demonstrated extensive physical elimination of biofilm deposits from treated coupons. In contrast, heparin had a minimal effect on planktonic or biofilm organisms.

Conclusions: The new multicomponent lock solution has strong antimicrobial properties against both planktonic and sessile microorganisms. By comparison, heparin with preservative has weak antibacterial properties against planktonic and biofilm bacteria. The tested catheter lock may have usefulness in preventing bacterial colonization of haemodialysis catheters and diminishing the incidence of catheter-related bacteraemia.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus