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Ethnic differences in BMI among Dutch adolescents: what is the role of screen-viewing, active commuting to school, and consumption of soft drinks and high-caloric snacks?

Singh AS, Chinapaw MJ, Brug J, Kremers SP, Visscher TL, van Mechelen W - Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act (2009)

Bottom Line: In our study sample 121 adolescents (= 13%) were of Non-Western origin.BMI was significantly higher in Non-Western adolescents (boys: 19.9 kg/m2, SD = 3.0, girls: 20.9 kg/m2, SD = 3.8) compared to Dutch adolescents (boys: 18.4 kg/m2, SD = 2.8, girls: 19.0 kg/m2, SD = 3.0).Our results show that time spent on television viewing, active commuting to school, and consumption of fruit juices partially mediated the association between BMI and ethnicity.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: VU University Medical Center, EMGO-Institute, Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. a.singh@vumc.nl.

ABSTRACT

Background: The threats posed by the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity on public health have been widely acknowledged. Several population groups, which deserve special attention because of their higher prevalence rates, have been identified. These include adolescents and ethnic sub-groups. The aim of the present study was twofold: (1) to assess ethnic differences in body mass index (BMI) and in behaviours that are related to both energy intake and energy expenditure, and (2) to examine whether these behaviours explain the relationship between ethnicity and BMI.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional data analysis among 957 Dutch adolescents (mean age = 12.7 years). Body height and weight were measured using a standardized protocol. Adolescents completed a questionnaire on screen-viewing behaviour, physical activity, consumption of sugar-containing beverages, and consumption of high-caloric snacks.

Results: In our study sample 121 adolescents (= 13%) were of Non-Western origin. BMI was significantly higher in Non-Western adolescents (boys: 19.9 kg/m2, SD = 3.0, girls: 20.9 kg/m2, SD = 3.8) compared to Dutch adolescents (boys: 18.4 kg/m2, SD = 2.8, girls: 19.0 kg/m2, SD = 3.0). Our results show that time spent on television viewing, active commuting to school, and consumption of fruit juices partially mediated the association between BMI and ethnicity.

Conclusion: Behaviours related to both energy expenditure and energy intake may contribute to the ethnic differences in BMI in adolescents and should be considered when tailoring overweight prevention programs to ethnic subpopulations.

Trial registration: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN87127361.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs) as a mediator variable of the relationship between BMI and ethnicity (Dutch versus Non-Western)
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Figure 2: Energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs) as a mediator variable of the relationship between BMI and ethnicity (Dutch versus Non-Western)

Mentions: To test for mediation by sedentary behaviour, physical activity, consumption of soft drinks and energy-dense snacks we followed the principles outlined by Baron and Kenny [26]. Consistent with Baron and Kenny's conditions (see figures 1 and 2), a variable functions as a mediator when it meets the following four criteria: (1) the independent variable (ethnicity) must be associated with the outcome variable (BMI) (crude model); (2) the independent variable (ethnicity) must be associated with the mediator variables (energy balance-related behaviours); (3) the mediator variables (energy balance-related behaviours) must be associated with the outcome variable (BMI) after controlling for the independent variable (ethnicity) (adjusted models); and (4) the relationship between the independent variable (ethnicity) and the outcome variable (BMI) is significantly diminished when adjusting for the mediator variables (energy balance-related behaviours).


Ethnic differences in BMI among Dutch adolescents: what is the role of screen-viewing, active commuting to school, and consumption of soft drinks and high-caloric snacks?

Singh AS, Chinapaw MJ, Brug J, Kremers SP, Visscher TL, van Mechelen W - Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act (2009)

Energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs) as a mediator variable of the relationship between BMI and ethnicity (Dutch versus Non-Western)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2683790&req=5

Figure 2: Energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs) as a mediator variable of the relationship between BMI and ethnicity (Dutch versus Non-Western)
Mentions: To test for mediation by sedentary behaviour, physical activity, consumption of soft drinks and energy-dense snacks we followed the principles outlined by Baron and Kenny [26]. Consistent with Baron and Kenny's conditions (see figures 1 and 2), a variable functions as a mediator when it meets the following four criteria: (1) the independent variable (ethnicity) must be associated with the outcome variable (BMI) (crude model); (2) the independent variable (ethnicity) must be associated with the mediator variables (energy balance-related behaviours); (3) the mediator variables (energy balance-related behaviours) must be associated with the outcome variable (BMI) after controlling for the independent variable (ethnicity) (adjusted models); and (4) the relationship between the independent variable (ethnicity) and the outcome variable (BMI) is significantly diminished when adjusting for the mediator variables (energy balance-related behaviours).

Bottom Line: In our study sample 121 adolescents (= 13%) were of Non-Western origin.BMI was significantly higher in Non-Western adolescents (boys: 19.9 kg/m2, SD = 3.0, girls: 20.9 kg/m2, SD = 3.8) compared to Dutch adolescents (boys: 18.4 kg/m2, SD = 2.8, girls: 19.0 kg/m2, SD = 3.0).Our results show that time spent on television viewing, active commuting to school, and consumption of fruit juices partially mediated the association between BMI and ethnicity.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: VU University Medical Center, EMGO-Institute, Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. a.singh@vumc.nl.

ABSTRACT

Background: The threats posed by the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity on public health have been widely acknowledged. Several population groups, which deserve special attention because of their higher prevalence rates, have been identified. These include adolescents and ethnic sub-groups. The aim of the present study was twofold: (1) to assess ethnic differences in body mass index (BMI) and in behaviours that are related to both energy intake and energy expenditure, and (2) to examine whether these behaviours explain the relationship between ethnicity and BMI.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional data analysis among 957 Dutch adolescents (mean age = 12.7 years). Body height and weight were measured using a standardized protocol. Adolescents completed a questionnaire on screen-viewing behaviour, physical activity, consumption of sugar-containing beverages, and consumption of high-caloric snacks.

Results: In our study sample 121 adolescents (= 13%) were of Non-Western origin. BMI was significantly higher in Non-Western adolescents (boys: 19.9 kg/m2, SD = 3.0, girls: 20.9 kg/m2, SD = 3.8) compared to Dutch adolescents (boys: 18.4 kg/m2, SD = 2.8, girls: 19.0 kg/m2, SD = 3.0). Our results show that time spent on television viewing, active commuting to school, and consumption of fruit juices partially mediated the association between BMI and ethnicity.

Conclusion: Behaviours related to both energy expenditure and energy intake may contribute to the ethnic differences in BMI in adolescents and should be considered when tailoring overweight prevention programs to ethnic subpopulations.

Trial registration: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN87127361.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus