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SLC30A3 responds to glucose- and zinc variations in beta-cells and is critical for insulin production and in vivo glucose-metabolism during beta-cell stress.

Smidt K, Jessen N, Petersen AB, Larsen A, Magnusson N, Jeppesen JB, Stoltenberg M, Culvenor JG, Tsatsanis A, Brock B, Schmitz O, Wogensen L, Bush AI, Rungby J - PLoS ONE (2009)

Bottom Line: In INS-1E cells 2 mM glucose down-regulated ZnT-3 and up-regulated ZnT-5 expression relative to 5 mM. 16 mM glucose increased ZnT-3 and decreased ZnT-8 expression.ZnT-3, which is pivotal in the development of cellular changes as also seen in type 2 diabetes (e.g. amyloidosis in Alzheimer's disease) but not previously described in beta-cells, is present in this cell type, up-regulated by glucose in a concentration dependent manner and up-regulated by zinc depletion which by contrast decreased ZnT-3 protein levels.Knock-down of the ZnT-3 gene lowers insulin secretion in vitro and affects in vivo glucose metabolism after streptozotocin treatment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, University of Aarhus, Arhus, Denmark.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ion transporters of the Slc30A- (ZnT-) family regulate zinc fluxes into sub-cellular compartments. beta-cells depend on zinc for both insulin crystallization and regulation of cell mass.

Methodology/principal findings: This study examined: the effect of glucose and zinc chelation on ZnT gene and protein levels and apoptosis in beta-cells and pancreatic islets, the effects of ZnT-3 knock-down on insulin secretion in a beta-cell line and ZnT-3 knock-out on glucose metabolism in mice during streptozotocin-induced beta-cell stress. In INS-1E cells 2 mM glucose down-regulated ZnT-3 and up-regulated ZnT-5 expression relative to 5 mM. 16 mM glucose increased ZnT-3 and decreased ZnT-8 expression. Zinc chelation by DEDTC lowered INS-1E insulin content and insulin expression. Furthermore, zinc depletion increased ZnT-3- and decreased ZnT-8 gene expression whereas the amount of ZnT-3 protein in the cells was decreased. Zinc depletion and high glucose induced apoptosis and necrosis in INS-1E cells. The most responsive zinc transporter, ZnT-3, was investigated further; by immunohistochemistry and western blotting ZnT-3 was demonstrated in INS-1E cells. 44% knock-down of ZnT-3 by siRNA transfection in INS-1E cells decreased insulin expression and secretion. Streptozotocin-treated mice had higher glucose levels after ZnT-3 knock-out, particularly in overt diabetic animals.

Conclusion/significance: Zinc transporting proteins in beta-cells respond to variations in glucose and zinc levels. ZnT-3, which is pivotal in the development of cellular changes as also seen in type 2 diabetes (e.g. amyloidosis in Alzheimer's disease) but not previously described in beta-cells, is present in this cell type, up-regulated by glucose in a concentration dependent manner and up-regulated by zinc depletion which by contrast decreased ZnT-3 protein levels. Knock-down of the ZnT-3 gene lowers insulin secretion in vitro and affects in vivo glucose metabolism after streptozotocin treatment.

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ZnT-3 protein in INS-1E cells and mouse islets.A) Western blot of ZnT-3 knockout tissue, and normal background strain tissue using the anti-ZnT-3 polyclonal antibody (20 µg per lane). B) Western blot with ZnT-3 antibody. Lane one shows the protein marker in kDa. Subsequent lanes: Control rat brain (10 µg protein) (lanes 2–4), mock transfected INS1-E cells (50 µg protein) (lanes 5–7), 100 µM DEDTC-treated INS1-E cells (50 µg protein) (lanes 8–10), ZnT-3 siRNA transfected INS1-E cells (50 µg protein) (lanes 11–13). Insert shows the quantification, brain tissue values are original multiplied by 5. C) Light micrograph of INS-1E cells exposed to ZnT-3 antibody. Silver enhanced colloidal gold (10 nm) particles attached to secondary antibodies against the ZnT-3 primary antibody are seen within the cells. There was no background stain and controls were negative (insert). Bar = 20 µm. D) Demonstration of ZnT3 antibody positivity in intact mouse islets (lane 1), compared with INS-1E cells before (lane 2) and after (lane 3) treatment with 100 µM DEDTC and brain tissue (lane 4). Each upload with 20 µg protein.
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pone-0005684-g006: ZnT-3 protein in INS-1E cells and mouse islets.A) Western blot of ZnT-3 knockout tissue, and normal background strain tissue using the anti-ZnT-3 polyclonal antibody (20 µg per lane). B) Western blot with ZnT-3 antibody. Lane one shows the protein marker in kDa. Subsequent lanes: Control rat brain (10 µg protein) (lanes 2–4), mock transfected INS1-E cells (50 µg protein) (lanes 5–7), 100 µM DEDTC-treated INS1-E cells (50 µg protein) (lanes 8–10), ZnT-3 siRNA transfected INS1-E cells (50 µg protein) (lanes 11–13). Insert shows the quantification, brain tissue values are original multiplied by 5. C) Light micrograph of INS-1E cells exposed to ZnT-3 antibody. Silver enhanced colloidal gold (10 nm) particles attached to secondary antibodies against the ZnT-3 primary antibody are seen within the cells. There was no background stain and controls were negative (insert). Bar = 20 µm. D) Demonstration of ZnT3 antibody positivity in intact mouse islets (lane 1), compared with INS-1E cells before (lane 2) and after (lane 3) treatment with 100 µM DEDTC and brain tissue (lane 4). Each upload with 20 µg protein.

Mentions: We developed a polyclonal specific antibody against the N-terminal domain of ZnT-3 (Fig. 6A). By western blotting, we determined the presence of ZnT-3 protein in DEDTC treated or siRNA transfected INS-1E cells (Fig. 6B). Brain tissue was used as control since high levels of ZnT-3 protein has previously been detected in synaptic vesicles of the hippocampus [30] (Fig. 6B). In contrast to the increased mRNA levels observed (fig. 4A), treatment of INS-1E cells with DEDTC decreasedZnT-3 protein levels assayed by western blotting (Fig. 6B). Knock-down of the ZnT-3 gene decreased protein levels by 57% (Fig. 6B). ZnT3 protein was present also in intact islets (Fig. 6D). Localisation of ZnT-3 in INS-1E cells to an intracellular compartment was determined by immunohistochemistry (Fig. 6C).


SLC30A3 responds to glucose- and zinc variations in beta-cells and is critical for insulin production and in vivo glucose-metabolism during beta-cell stress.

Smidt K, Jessen N, Petersen AB, Larsen A, Magnusson N, Jeppesen JB, Stoltenberg M, Culvenor JG, Tsatsanis A, Brock B, Schmitz O, Wogensen L, Bush AI, Rungby J - PLoS ONE (2009)

ZnT-3 protein in INS-1E cells and mouse islets.A) Western blot of ZnT-3 knockout tissue, and normal background strain tissue using the anti-ZnT-3 polyclonal antibody (20 µg per lane). B) Western blot with ZnT-3 antibody. Lane one shows the protein marker in kDa. Subsequent lanes: Control rat brain (10 µg protein) (lanes 2–4), mock transfected INS1-E cells (50 µg protein) (lanes 5–7), 100 µM DEDTC-treated INS1-E cells (50 µg protein) (lanes 8–10), ZnT-3 siRNA transfected INS1-E cells (50 µg protein) (lanes 11–13). Insert shows the quantification, brain tissue values are original multiplied by 5. C) Light micrograph of INS-1E cells exposed to ZnT-3 antibody. Silver enhanced colloidal gold (10 nm) particles attached to secondary antibodies against the ZnT-3 primary antibody are seen within the cells. There was no background stain and controls were negative (insert). Bar = 20 µm. D) Demonstration of ZnT3 antibody positivity in intact mouse islets (lane 1), compared with INS-1E cells before (lane 2) and after (lane 3) treatment with 100 µM DEDTC and brain tissue (lane 4). Each upload with 20 µg protein.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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pone-0005684-g006: ZnT-3 protein in INS-1E cells and mouse islets.A) Western blot of ZnT-3 knockout tissue, and normal background strain tissue using the anti-ZnT-3 polyclonal antibody (20 µg per lane). B) Western blot with ZnT-3 antibody. Lane one shows the protein marker in kDa. Subsequent lanes: Control rat brain (10 µg protein) (lanes 2–4), mock transfected INS1-E cells (50 µg protein) (lanes 5–7), 100 µM DEDTC-treated INS1-E cells (50 µg protein) (lanes 8–10), ZnT-3 siRNA transfected INS1-E cells (50 µg protein) (lanes 11–13). Insert shows the quantification, brain tissue values are original multiplied by 5. C) Light micrograph of INS-1E cells exposed to ZnT-3 antibody. Silver enhanced colloidal gold (10 nm) particles attached to secondary antibodies against the ZnT-3 primary antibody are seen within the cells. There was no background stain and controls were negative (insert). Bar = 20 µm. D) Demonstration of ZnT3 antibody positivity in intact mouse islets (lane 1), compared with INS-1E cells before (lane 2) and after (lane 3) treatment with 100 µM DEDTC and brain tissue (lane 4). Each upload with 20 µg protein.
Mentions: We developed a polyclonal specific antibody against the N-terminal domain of ZnT-3 (Fig. 6A). By western blotting, we determined the presence of ZnT-3 protein in DEDTC treated or siRNA transfected INS-1E cells (Fig. 6B). Brain tissue was used as control since high levels of ZnT-3 protein has previously been detected in synaptic vesicles of the hippocampus [30] (Fig. 6B). In contrast to the increased mRNA levels observed (fig. 4A), treatment of INS-1E cells with DEDTC decreasedZnT-3 protein levels assayed by western blotting (Fig. 6B). Knock-down of the ZnT-3 gene decreased protein levels by 57% (Fig. 6B). ZnT3 protein was present also in intact islets (Fig. 6D). Localisation of ZnT-3 in INS-1E cells to an intracellular compartment was determined by immunohistochemistry (Fig. 6C).

Bottom Line: In INS-1E cells 2 mM glucose down-regulated ZnT-3 and up-regulated ZnT-5 expression relative to 5 mM. 16 mM glucose increased ZnT-3 and decreased ZnT-8 expression.ZnT-3, which is pivotal in the development of cellular changes as also seen in type 2 diabetes (e.g. amyloidosis in Alzheimer's disease) but not previously described in beta-cells, is present in this cell type, up-regulated by glucose in a concentration dependent manner and up-regulated by zinc depletion which by contrast decreased ZnT-3 protein levels.Knock-down of the ZnT-3 gene lowers insulin secretion in vitro and affects in vivo glucose metabolism after streptozotocin treatment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, University of Aarhus, Arhus, Denmark.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ion transporters of the Slc30A- (ZnT-) family regulate zinc fluxes into sub-cellular compartments. beta-cells depend on zinc for both insulin crystallization and regulation of cell mass.

Methodology/principal findings: This study examined: the effect of glucose and zinc chelation on ZnT gene and protein levels and apoptosis in beta-cells and pancreatic islets, the effects of ZnT-3 knock-down on insulin secretion in a beta-cell line and ZnT-3 knock-out on glucose metabolism in mice during streptozotocin-induced beta-cell stress. In INS-1E cells 2 mM glucose down-regulated ZnT-3 and up-regulated ZnT-5 expression relative to 5 mM. 16 mM glucose increased ZnT-3 and decreased ZnT-8 expression. Zinc chelation by DEDTC lowered INS-1E insulin content and insulin expression. Furthermore, zinc depletion increased ZnT-3- and decreased ZnT-8 gene expression whereas the amount of ZnT-3 protein in the cells was decreased. Zinc depletion and high glucose induced apoptosis and necrosis in INS-1E cells. The most responsive zinc transporter, ZnT-3, was investigated further; by immunohistochemistry and western blotting ZnT-3 was demonstrated in INS-1E cells. 44% knock-down of ZnT-3 by siRNA transfection in INS-1E cells decreased insulin expression and secretion. Streptozotocin-treated mice had higher glucose levels after ZnT-3 knock-out, particularly in overt diabetic animals.

Conclusion/significance: Zinc transporting proteins in beta-cells respond to variations in glucose and zinc levels. ZnT-3, which is pivotal in the development of cellular changes as also seen in type 2 diabetes (e.g. amyloidosis in Alzheimer's disease) but not previously described in beta-cells, is present in this cell type, up-regulated by glucose in a concentration dependent manner and up-regulated by zinc depletion which by contrast decreased ZnT-3 protein levels. Knock-down of the ZnT-3 gene lowers insulin secretion in vitro and affects in vivo glucose metabolism after streptozotocin treatment.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus