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Genetic diversity of staphylocoagulase genes (coa): insight into the evolution of variable chromosomal virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus.

Watanabe S, Ito T, Sasaki T, Li S, Uchiyama I, Kishii K, Kikuchi K, Skov RL, Hiramatsu K - PLoS ONE (2009)

Bottom Line: We compared the nucleotide sequences of 105 SC genes (coa), 59 of which were determined in this study.The phylogenetical relations of the D1 regions did not correlate exactly with either one of agr types and multilocus sequence types (STs).Chromosomal recombination had occurred at coa and agr loci, resulting in the carriage of the combinations of allotypically different important virulence determinants in staphylococcal chromosome.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Infection Control Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT

Background: The production of staphylocoagulase (SC) causing the plasma coagulation is one of the important characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus. Although SCs have been classified into 10 serotypes based on the differences in the antigenicity, genetic bases for their diversities and relatedness to chromosome types are poorly understood.

Methodology/principal findings: We compared the nucleotide sequences of 105 SC genes (coa), 59 of which were determined in this study. D1 regions, which contain prothrombin-activating and -binding domains and are presumed to be the binding site of each type-specific antiserum, were classified into twelve clusters having more than 90% nucleotide identities, resulting to create two novel SC types, XI and XII, in addition to extant 10 types. Nine of the twelve SC types were further subdivided into subtypes based on the differences of the D2 or the central regions. The phylogenetical relations of the D1 regions did not correlate exactly with either one of agr types and multilocus sequence types (STs). In addition, genetic analysis showed that recombination events have occurred in and around coa. So far tested, STs of 126 S. aureus strains correspond to the combination of SC type and agr type except for the cases of CC1 and CC8, which contained two and three different SC types, respectively.

Conclusion: The data suggested that the evolution of coa was not monophyletic in the species. Chromosomal recombination had occurred at coa and agr loci, resulting in the carriage of the combinations of allotypically different important virulence determinants in staphylococcal chromosome.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogenetic relationship among the nucleotide sequences of the D1 regions of 105 coa.The Neighbor-Joining (NJ) tree was constructed using Clustral W and TreeView. The numbers at nodes refer to bootstrap replicates out of 1000 that support the node. Abbreviations are as follows: SC, the type of stapylocoagulase; Ser, serotype of staphylocoagulase; Rep, a number of 81-bp tandem-repeat units of coa; agr, agr type; ST, multilocus sequence type; LP in Serotype section, Staphylocoagulase production was too low to clot serum within 48 hr; NT in Serotype section, Non typable; “-” in Serotype section, Not tested; PS in Rep section, Partially sequenced; ND in agr section, Not detected by M-PCR for agr.
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pone-0005714-g002: Phylogenetic relationship among the nucleotide sequences of the D1 regions of 105 coa.The Neighbor-Joining (NJ) tree was constructed using Clustral W and TreeView. The numbers at nodes refer to bootstrap replicates out of 1000 that support the node. Abbreviations are as follows: SC, the type of stapylocoagulase; Ser, serotype of staphylocoagulase; Rep, a number of 81-bp tandem-repeat units of coa; agr, agr type; ST, multilocus sequence type; LP in Serotype section, Staphylocoagulase production was too low to clot serum within 48 hr; NT in Serotype section, Non typable; “-” in Serotype section, Not tested; PS in Rep section, Partially sequenced; ND in agr section, Not detected by M-PCR for agr.

Mentions: Historically, SCs have been classified into 10 serotypes based on the differences in antigenicity by inhibition test using type-specific antibodies against each type of staphylocoagulase proteins. Since our previous study suggested the D1 regions might be the major antibody recognition site for type-specific antibodies [5], we conducted nucleotide and amino acid sequence comparison among 103 genes and 2 partially-sequenced coa. Phylogenetic trees were created to compare the relationship between serotypes and nucleotide diversities in the D1 regions (figure 2) as well as amino acid diversities (data not shown).


Genetic diversity of staphylocoagulase genes (coa): insight into the evolution of variable chromosomal virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus.

Watanabe S, Ito T, Sasaki T, Li S, Uchiyama I, Kishii K, Kikuchi K, Skov RL, Hiramatsu K - PLoS ONE (2009)

Phylogenetic relationship among the nucleotide sequences of the D1 regions of 105 coa.The Neighbor-Joining (NJ) tree was constructed using Clustral W and TreeView. The numbers at nodes refer to bootstrap replicates out of 1000 that support the node. Abbreviations are as follows: SC, the type of stapylocoagulase; Ser, serotype of staphylocoagulase; Rep, a number of 81-bp tandem-repeat units of coa; agr, agr type; ST, multilocus sequence type; LP in Serotype section, Staphylocoagulase production was too low to clot serum within 48 hr; NT in Serotype section, Non typable; “-” in Serotype section, Not tested; PS in Rep section, Partially sequenced; ND in agr section, Not detected by M-PCR for agr.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2683563&req=5

pone-0005714-g002: Phylogenetic relationship among the nucleotide sequences of the D1 regions of 105 coa.The Neighbor-Joining (NJ) tree was constructed using Clustral W and TreeView. The numbers at nodes refer to bootstrap replicates out of 1000 that support the node. Abbreviations are as follows: SC, the type of stapylocoagulase; Ser, serotype of staphylocoagulase; Rep, a number of 81-bp tandem-repeat units of coa; agr, agr type; ST, multilocus sequence type; LP in Serotype section, Staphylocoagulase production was too low to clot serum within 48 hr; NT in Serotype section, Non typable; “-” in Serotype section, Not tested; PS in Rep section, Partially sequenced; ND in agr section, Not detected by M-PCR for agr.
Mentions: Historically, SCs have been classified into 10 serotypes based on the differences in antigenicity by inhibition test using type-specific antibodies against each type of staphylocoagulase proteins. Since our previous study suggested the D1 regions might be the major antibody recognition site for type-specific antibodies [5], we conducted nucleotide and amino acid sequence comparison among 103 genes and 2 partially-sequenced coa. Phylogenetic trees were created to compare the relationship between serotypes and nucleotide diversities in the D1 regions (figure 2) as well as amino acid diversities (data not shown).

Bottom Line: We compared the nucleotide sequences of 105 SC genes (coa), 59 of which were determined in this study.The phylogenetical relations of the D1 regions did not correlate exactly with either one of agr types and multilocus sequence types (STs).Chromosomal recombination had occurred at coa and agr loci, resulting in the carriage of the combinations of allotypically different important virulence determinants in staphylococcal chromosome.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Infection Control Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT

Background: The production of staphylocoagulase (SC) causing the plasma coagulation is one of the important characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus. Although SCs have been classified into 10 serotypes based on the differences in the antigenicity, genetic bases for their diversities and relatedness to chromosome types are poorly understood.

Methodology/principal findings: We compared the nucleotide sequences of 105 SC genes (coa), 59 of which were determined in this study. D1 regions, which contain prothrombin-activating and -binding domains and are presumed to be the binding site of each type-specific antiserum, were classified into twelve clusters having more than 90% nucleotide identities, resulting to create two novel SC types, XI and XII, in addition to extant 10 types. Nine of the twelve SC types were further subdivided into subtypes based on the differences of the D2 or the central regions. The phylogenetical relations of the D1 regions did not correlate exactly with either one of agr types and multilocus sequence types (STs). In addition, genetic analysis showed that recombination events have occurred in and around coa. So far tested, STs of 126 S. aureus strains correspond to the combination of SC type and agr type except for the cases of CC1 and CC8, which contained two and three different SC types, respectively.

Conclusion: The data suggested that the evolution of coa was not monophyletic in the species. Chromosomal recombination had occurred at coa and agr loci, resulting in the carriage of the combinations of allotypically different important virulence determinants in staphylococcal chromosome.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus