Nutrigenomic analysis of diet-gene interactions on functional supplements for weight management.
Bottom Line: Nutrigenomics may provide the strategies for the development of safe and effective dietary interventions against the obesity epidemic.Among these supplements, (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural extract isolated from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, and the micronutrient niacin-bound chromium(III) (NBC) have been shown to be safe and efficacious for weight loss.The potential biological mechanisms underlying the observed beneficial effects of these supplements as elucidated by the state-of-the-art nutrigenomic technologies will be systematically discussed in this review.
Affiliation: InterHealth Research Center, Benicia, CA, USA.
Recent advances in molecular biology combined with the wealth of information generated by the Human Genome Project have fostered the emergence of nutrigenomics, a new discipline in the field of nutritional research. Nutrigenomics may provide the strategies for the development of safe and effective dietary interventions against the obesity epidemic. According to the World Health Organization, more than 60% of the global disease burden will be attributed to chronic disorders associated with obesity by 2020. Meanwhile in the US, the prevalence of obesity has doubled in adults and tripled in children during the past three decades. In this regard, a number of natural dietary supplements and micronutrients have been studied for their potential in weight management. Among these supplements, (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural extract isolated from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, and the micronutrient niacin-bound chromium(III) (NBC) have been shown to be safe and efficacious for weight loss. Utilizing cDNA microarrays, we demonstrated for the first time that HCA-supplementation altered the expression of genes involved in lipolytic and adipogenic pathways in adipocytes from obese women and up-regulated the expression of serotonin receptor gene in the abdominal fat of rats. Similarly, we showed that NBC-supplementation up-regulated the expression of myogenic genes while suppressed the expression of genes that are highly expressed in brown adipose tissue in diabetic obese mice. The potential biological mechanisms underlying the observed beneficial effects of these supplements as elucidated by the state-of-the-art nutrigenomic technologies will be systematically discussed in this review.
No MeSH data available.
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Mentions: NBC-induced changes in the transcriptome of subcutaneous adipose tissues of these obese diabetic mice were interrogated by an unbiased genome-wide microarray approach in an attempt to identify candidate genes whose expressions were sensitive to NBC-supplementation . The data-mining scheme is presented in Fig. (2) where, among the 45101 probe-sets interrogated, only a small subset of genes was found to be influenced by NBC-supplementation. The overall effect of NBC-supplementation on the genome of the adipose tissues was positive since it stimulated more genes than it inhibited them as illustrated by Fig. (3). The NBC-induced genes are known to be involved in glycolysis, muscle metabolism, and muscle development. The expression of muscle-specific genes in fat tissue over time has been shown to reduce fat content in the adipose tissues . The NBC-suppressed genes in the adipose tissues are known to play important roles in thermogenic process of brown fat tissue. On the whole, the microarray data indicated that NBC-supplementation did not induce a genome-wide perturbation; rather, NBC-supplementation specifically influenced a small subset of genes that are biologically relevant to adipocyte maintenance.
No MeSH data available.