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The genetic legacy of religious diversity and intolerance: paternal lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula.

Adams SM, Bosch E, Balaresque PL, Ballereau SJ, Lee AC, Arroyo E, López-Parra AM, Aler M, Grifo MS, Brion M, Carracedo A, Lavinha J, Martínez-Jarreta B, Quintana-Murci L, Picornell A, Ramon M, Skorecki K, Behar DM, Calafell F, Jobling MA - Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2008)

Bottom Line: Most studies of European genetic diversity have focused on large-scale variation and interpretations based on events in prehistory, but migrations and invasions in historical times could also have had profound effects on the genetic landscape.In agreement with the historical record, analysis of haplotype sharing and diversity within specific haplogroups suggests that the Sephardic Jewish component is the more ancient.The geographical distribution of North African ancestry in the peninsula does not reflect the initial colonization and subsequent withdrawal and is likely to result from later enforced population movement-more marked in some regions than in others-plus the effects of genetic drift.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.

ABSTRACT
Most studies of European genetic diversity have focused on large-scale variation and interpretations based on events in prehistory, but migrations and invasions in historical times could also have had profound effects on the genetic landscape. The Iberian Peninsula provides a suitable region for examination of the demographic impact of such recent events, because its complex recent history has involved the long-term residence of two very different populations with distinct geographical origins and their own particular cultural and religious characteristics-North African Muslims and Sephardic Jews. To address this issue, we analyzed Y chromosome haplotypes, which provide the necessary phylogeographic resolution, in 1140 males from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. Admixture analysis based on binary and Y-STR haplotypes indicates a high mean proportion of ancestry from North African (10.6%) and Sephardic Jewish (19.8%) sources. Despite alternative possible sources for lineages ascribed a Sephardic Jewish origin, these proportions attest to a high level of religious conversion (whether voluntary or enforced), driven by historical episodes of social and religious intolerance, that ultimately led to the integration of descendants. In agreement with the historical record, analysis of haplotype sharing and diversity within specific haplogroups suggests that the Sephardic Jewish component is the more ancient. The geographical distribution of North African ancestry in the peninsula does not reflect the initial colonization and subsequent withdrawal and is likely to result from later enforced population movement-more marked in some regions than in others-plus the effects of genetic drift.

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Diversity of Y-STR Haplotypes Belonging to Haplogroups E3b2 and GA) Reduced median network53 containing the eight-locus Y-STR (DYS19, DYS388, DYS389I, DYS389II-I, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393) haplotypes of 170 hgE3b2 chromosomes. North African haplotypes include those from Moroccan, Algerian, Tunisian, and Saharawi samples. Circles represent haplotypes, with area proportional to frequency and colored according to population, as shown in the key.B) Analogous network for 82 chromosomes within hgG.
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fig5: Diversity of Y-STR Haplotypes Belonging to Haplogroups E3b2 and GA) Reduced median network53 containing the eight-locus Y-STR (DYS19, DYS388, DYS389I, DYS389II-I, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393) haplotypes of 170 hgE3b2 chromosomes. North African haplotypes include those from Moroccan, Algerian, Tunisian, and Saharawi samples. Circles represent haplotypes, with area proportional to frequency and colored according to population, as shown in the key.B) Analogous network for 82 chromosomes within hgG.

Mentions: To examine admixture in more detail, we can compare Y-STR haplotypes within prominent lineages shared between the Iberian samples and the North African and Sephardic Jewish samples. A reduced-median network representing the eight-locus haplotypes within hgE3b2, the predominant haplogroup in North Africa, is shown in Figure 5a. The network is star-like, with a major core haplotype shared by 48 North Africans and 27 Iberians, plus the sole example of a Sephardic Jewish haplotype. In total, twelve of the 51 haplotypes are shared between North Africans and Iberians, but Iberians show a lower diversity (average squared difference [ASD] = 2.85) than North Africans (ASD = 9.13). This is consistent with a history of migration of North Africans to Iberia and introgression of hgE3b2 haplotypes, representing a subset of the North African diversity, into the indigenous population. A reciprocal example is provided by hgG (Figure 5B), frequent in the Sephardic Jewish sample. In this case, only two North African chromosomes belong to this haplogroup, but 7/48 haplotypes are shared between Sephardic Jewish and Iberian chromosomes, and the respective ASD values are similar, at 14.00 and 15.10. The high degree of haplotype sharing indicates introgression of Sephardic Jews into the indigenous Iberian population, but the similarity in haplotype diversity suggests that this was relatively ancient. Supporting a contribution of Sephardic Jewish patrilines to the Iberian population, shared STR haplotypes between the two within haplogroups E3b1, J∗, J2, and K∗ (data not shown, Table S1) were also observed. The mean proportion of identical haplotypes shared between the Sephardic Jewish sample and the Iberian samples is 3.6%, whereas the proportion for those shared between the Moroccan sample and the Iberian samples is 2.8%.


The genetic legacy of religious diversity and intolerance: paternal lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula.

Adams SM, Bosch E, Balaresque PL, Ballereau SJ, Lee AC, Arroyo E, López-Parra AM, Aler M, Grifo MS, Brion M, Carracedo A, Lavinha J, Martínez-Jarreta B, Quintana-Murci L, Picornell A, Ramon M, Skorecki K, Behar DM, Calafell F, Jobling MA - Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2008)

Diversity of Y-STR Haplotypes Belonging to Haplogroups E3b2 and GA) Reduced median network53 containing the eight-locus Y-STR (DYS19, DYS388, DYS389I, DYS389II-I, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393) haplotypes of 170 hgE3b2 chromosomes. North African haplotypes include those from Moroccan, Algerian, Tunisian, and Saharawi samples. Circles represent haplotypes, with area proportional to frequency and colored according to population, as shown in the key.B) Analogous network for 82 chromosomes within hgG.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2668061&req=5

fig5: Diversity of Y-STR Haplotypes Belonging to Haplogroups E3b2 and GA) Reduced median network53 containing the eight-locus Y-STR (DYS19, DYS388, DYS389I, DYS389II-I, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393) haplotypes of 170 hgE3b2 chromosomes. North African haplotypes include those from Moroccan, Algerian, Tunisian, and Saharawi samples. Circles represent haplotypes, with area proportional to frequency and colored according to population, as shown in the key.B) Analogous network for 82 chromosomes within hgG.
Mentions: To examine admixture in more detail, we can compare Y-STR haplotypes within prominent lineages shared between the Iberian samples and the North African and Sephardic Jewish samples. A reduced-median network representing the eight-locus haplotypes within hgE3b2, the predominant haplogroup in North Africa, is shown in Figure 5a. The network is star-like, with a major core haplotype shared by 48 North Africans and 27 Iberians, plus the sole example of a Sephardic Jewish haplotype. In total, twelve of the 51 haplotypes are shared between North Africans and Iberians, but Iberians show a lower diversity (average squared difference [ASD] = 2.85) than North Africans (ASD = 9.13). This is consistent with a history of migration of North Africans to Iberia and introgression of hgE3b2 haplotypes, representing a subset of the North African diversity, into the indigenous population. A reciprocal example is provided by hgG (Figure 5B), frequent in the Sephardic Jewish sample. In this case, only two North African chromosomes belong to this haplogroup, but 7/48 haplotypes are shared between Sephardic Jewish and Iberian chromosomes, and the respective ASD values are similar, at 14.00 and 15.10. The high degree of haplotype sharing indicates introgression of Sephardic Jews into the indigenous Iberian population, but the similarity in haplotype diversity suggests that this was relatively ancient. Supporting a contribution of Sephardic Jewish patrilines to the Iberian population, shared STR haplotypes between the two within haplogroups E3b1, J∗, J2, and K∗ (data not shown, Table S1) were also observed. The mean proportion of identical haplotypes shared between the Sephardic Jewish sample and the Iberian samples is 3.6%, whereas the proportion for those shared between the Moroccan sample and the Iberian samples is 2.8%.

Bottom Line: Most studies of European genetic diversity have focused on large-scale variation and interpretations based on events in prehistory, but migrations and invasions in historical times could also have had profound effects on the genetic landscape.In agreement with the historical record, analysis of haplotype sharing and diversity within specific haplogroups suggests that the Sephardic Jewish component is the more ancient.The geographical distribution of North African ancestry in the peninsula does not reflect the initial colonization and subsequent withdrawal and is likely to result from later enforced population movement-more marked in some regions than in others-plus the effects of genetic drift.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.

ABSTRACT
Most studies of European genetic diversity have focused on large-scale variation and interpretations based on events in prehistory, but migrations and invasions in historical times could also have had profound effects on the genetic landscape. The Iberian Peninsula provides a suitable region for examination of the demographic impact of such recent events, because its complex recent history has involved the long-term residence of two very different populations with distinct geographical origins and their own particular cultural and religious characteristics-North African Muslims and Sephardic Jews. To address this issue, we analyzed Y chromosome haplotypes, which provide the necessary phylogeographic resolution, in 1140 males from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. Admixture analysis based on binary and Y-STR haplotypes indicates a high mean proportion of ancestry from North African (10.6%) and Sephardic Jewish (19.8%) sources. Despite alternative possible sources for lineages ascribed a Sephardic Jewish origin, these proportions attest to a high level of religious conversion (whether voluntary or enforced), driven by historical episodes of social and religious intolerance, that ultimately led to the integration of descendants. In agreement with the historical record, analysis of haplotype sharing and diversity within specific haplogroups suggests that the Sephardic Jewish component is the more ancient. The geographical distribution of North African ancestry in the peninsula does not reflect the initial colonization and subsequent withdrawal and is likely to result from later enforced population movement-more marked in some regions than in others-plus the effects of genetic drift.

Show MeSH