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The genetic legacy of religious diversity and intolerance: paternal lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula.

Adams SM, Bosch E, Balaresque PL, Ballereau SJ, Lee AC, Arroyo E, López-Parra AM, Aler M, Grifo MS, Brion M, Carracedo A, Lavinha J, Martínez-Jarreta B, Quintana-Murci L, Picornell A, Ramon M, Skorecki K, Behar DM, Calafell F, Jobling MA - Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2008)

Bottom Line: Most studies of European genetic diversity have focused on large-scale variation and interpretations based on events in prehistory, but migrations and invasions in historical times could also have had profound effects on the genetic landscape.In agreement with the historical record, analysis of haplotype sharing and diversity within specific haplogroups suggests that the Sephardic Jewish component is the more ancient.The geographical distribution of North African ancestry in the peninsula does not reflect the initial colonization and subsequent withdrawal and is likely to result from later enforced population movement-more marked in some regions than in others-plus the effects of genetic drift.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.

ABSTRACT
Most studies of European genetic diversity have focused on large-scale variation and interpretations based on events in prehistory, but migrations and invasions in historical times could also have had profound effects on the genetic landscape. The Iberian Peninsula provides a suitable region for examination of the demographic impact of such recent events, because its complex recent history has involved the long-term residence of two very different populations with distinct geographical origins and their own particular cultural and religious characteristics-North African Muslims and Sephardic Jews. To address this issue, we analyzed Y chromosome haplotypes, which provide the necessary phylogeographic resolution, in 1140 males from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. Admixture analysis based on binary and Y-STR haplotypes indicates a high mean proportion of ancestry from North African (10.6%) and Sephardic Jewish (19.8%) sources. Despite alternative possible sources for lineages ascribed a Sephardic Jewish origin, these proportions attest to a high level of religious conversion (whether voluntary or enforced), driven by historical episodes of social and religious intolerance, that ultimately led to the integration of descendants. In agreement with the historical record, analysis of haplotype sharing and diversity within specific haplogroups suggests that the Sephardic Jewish component is the more ancient. The geographical distribution of North African ancestry in the peninsula does not reflect the initial colonization and subsequent withdrawal and is likely to result from later enforced population movement-more marked in some regions than in others-plus the effects of genetic drift.

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Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups in Iberian, North African, and Sephardic Jewish SamplesBinary marker phylogeny of the Y chromosome, showing mutations on the branches of the tree, and shorthand haplogroup names40 immediately beneath. Haplogroups unobserved in any sample are indicated by dashed branches on the tree. Below the phylogeny are given the percentages of chromosomes carrying the observed haplogroup. Abbreviations are as follows: n, sample size; h, Nei's unbiased estimator of gene diversity. Data on North African populations are from the literature (see footnotes).a Data from Bosch et al.34b Data from Arredi et al.,47 with haplogroup prediction for hgG.c Subhaplogroups of R1b3 were not typed in the Sephardic Jewish sample.
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fig1: Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups in Iberian, North African, and Sephardic Jewish SamplesBinary marker phylogeny of the Y chromosome, showing mutations on the branches of the tree, and shorthand haplogroup names40 immediately beneath. Haplogroups unobserved in any sample are indicated by dashed branches on the tree. Below the phylogeny are given the percentages of chromosomes carrying the observed haplogroup. Abbreviations are as follows: n, sample size; h, Nei's unbiased estimator of gene diversity. Data on North African populations are from the literature (see footnotes).a Data from Bosch et al.34b Data from Arredi et al.,47 with haplogroup prediction for hgG.c Subhaplogroups of R1b3 were not typed in the Sephardic Jewish sample.

Mentions: Binary markers (Figure 1) on the nonrecombining region of the Y chromosome were typed in hierarchical multiplexes,43 via the SNaPshot minisequencing procedure (Applied Biosystems) and an ABI3100 Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems). All samples were initially analyzed with multiplex I43 (containing the markers M9, M69, M89, M145, M170, M172, M201, and 12f2). Samples derived for M9 (haplogroup [hg] K) were analyzed with multiplex II43 (containing M17, M45, M173, M207, P25, and SRY10831). Two individuals derived for M45 but ancestral for M207 (hgP∗[xR]) were analyzed with the markers MEH2 and M3 and could thus be assigned to hgQ∗(xQ3). Samples derived for M173 but ancestral for SRY10831.2 and M17 (hgR1∗[xR1a]) were further analyzed with multiplex IV—which, to our knowledge, is previously unpublished—containing the markers M65, M153, M222, M269, and SRY-2627. Ten individuals carry reversions of the marker P25 through gene conversion,44 and the allelic state of this marker in these chromosomes is therefore ignored for the purposes of this study. Samples derived for M145 within multiplex I (in hgDE) were further analyzed with multiplex III43 (containing M33, M35, M75, M78, M81, M96, M123, and P2), and the marker M2 was also analyzed as appropriate. Previously unreported primers were designed on the basis of published information about polymorphic sites.45 Note that hgR2 (R-M124) is reported in Figure 1, because it was detected in the Sephardic Jewish sample (Table S1, available online), but was not typed in the Iberian samples, because all chromosomes derived for M207 (hgR) were also derived for M173 (hgR1).


The genetic legacy of religious diversity and intolerance: paternal lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula.

Adams SM, Bosch E, Balaresque PL, Ballereau SJ, Lee AC, Arroyo E, López-Parra AM, Aler M, Grifo MS, Brion M, Carracedo A, Lavinha J, Martínez-Jarreta B, Quintana-Murci L, Picornell A, Ramon M, Skorecki K, Behar DM, Calafell F, Jobling MA - Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2008)

Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups in Iberian, North African, and Sephardic Jewish SamplesBinary marker phylogeny of the Y chromosome, showing mutations on the branches of the tree, and shorthand haplogroup names40 immediately beneath. Haplogroups unobserved in any sample are indicated by dashed branches on the tree. Below the phylogeny are given the percentages of chromosomes carrying the observed haplogroup. Abbreviations are as follows: n, sample size; h, Nei's unbiased estimator of gene diversity. Data on North African populations are from the literature (see footnotes).a Data from Bosch et al.34b Data from Arredi et al.,47 with haplogroup prediction for hgG.c Subhaplogroups of R1b3 were not typed in the Sephardic Jewish sample.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2668061&req=5

fig1: Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups in Iberian, North African, and Sephardic Jewish SamplesBinary marker phylogeny of the Y chromosome, showing mutations on the branches of the tree, and shorthand haplogroup names40 immediately beneath. Haplogroups unobserved in any sample are indicated by dashed branches on the tree. Below the phylogeny are given the percentages of chromosomes carrying the observed haplogroup. Abbreviations are as follows: n, sample size; h, Nei's unbiased estimator of gene diversity. Data on North African populations are from the literature (see footnotes).a Data from Bosch et al.34b Data from Arredi et al.,47 with haplogroup prediction for hgG.c Subhaplogroups of R1b3 were not typed in the Sephardic Jewish sample.
Mentions: Binary markers (Figure 1) on the nonrecombining region of the Y chromosome were typed in hierarchical multiplexes,43 via the SNaPshot minisequencing procedure (Applied Biosystems) and an ABI3100 Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems). All samples were initially analyzed with multiplex I43 (containing the markers M9, M69, M89, M145, M170, M172, M201, and 12f2). Samples derived for M9 (haplogroup [hg] K) were analyzed with multiplex II43 (containing M17, M45, M173, M207, P25, and SRY10831). Two individuals derived for M45 but ancestral for M207 (hgP∗[xR]) were analyzed with the markers MEH2 and M3 and could thus be assigned to hgQ∗(xQ3). Samples derived for M173 but ancestral for SRY10831.2 and M17 (hgR1∗[xR1a]) were further analyzed with multiplex IV—which, to our knowledge, is previously unpublished—containing the markers M65, M153, M222, M269, and SRY-2627. Ten individuals carry reversions of the marker P25 through gene conversion,44 and the allelic state of this marker in these chromosomes is therefore ignored for the purposes of this study. Samples derived for M145 within multiplex I (in hgDE) were further analyzed with multiplex III43 (containing M33, M35, M75, M78, M81, M96, M123, and P2), and the marker M2 was also analyzed as appropriate. Previously unreported primers were designed on the basis of published information about polymorphic sites.45 Note that hgR2 (R-M124) is reported in Figure 1, because it was detected in the Sephardic Jewish sample (Table S1, available online), but was not typed in the Iberian samples, because all chromosomes derived for M207 (hgR) were also derived for M173 (hgR1).

Bottom Line: Most studies of European genetic diversity have focused on large-scale variation and interpretations based on events in prehistory, but migrations and invasions in historical times could also have had profound effects on the genetic landscape.In agreement with the historical record, analysis of haplotype sharing and diversity within specific haplogroups suggests that the Sephardic Jewish component is the more ancient.The geographical distribution of North African ancestry in the peninsula does not reflect the initial colonization and subsequent withdrawal and is likely to result from later enforced population movement-more marked in some regions than in others-plus the effects of genetic drift.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.

ABSTRACT
Most studies of European genetic diversity have focused on large-scale variation and interpretations based on events in prehistory, but migrations and invasions in historical times could also have had profound effects on the genetic landscape. The Iberian Peninsula provides a suitable region for examination of the demographic impact of such recent events, because its complex recent history has involved the long-term residence of two very different populations with distinct geographical origins and their own particular cultural and religious characteristics-North African Muslims and Sephardic Jews. To address this issue, we analyzed Y chromosome haplotypes, which provide the necessary phylogeographic resolution, in 1140 males from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. Admixture analysis based on binary and Y-STR haplotypes indicates a high mean proportion of ancestry from North African (10.6%) and Sephardic Jewish (19.8%) sources. Despite alternative possible sources for lineages ascribed a Sephardic Jewish origin, these proportions attest to a high level of religious conversion (whether voluntary or enforced), driven by historical episodes of social and religious intolerance, that ultimately led to the integration of descendants. In agreement with the historical record, analysis of haplotype sharing and diversity within specific haplogroups suggests that the Sephardic Jewish component is the more ancient. The geographical distribution of North African ancestry in the peninsula does not reflect the initial colonization and subsequent withdrawal and is likely to result from later enforced population movement-more marked in some regions than in others-plus the effects of genetic drift.

Show MeSH