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Surgical inflammation: a pathophysiological rainbow.

Arias JI, Aller MA, Arias J - J Transl Med (2009)

Bottom Line: Tetrapyrrole molecules are distributed in virtually all living organisms on Earth.In mammals, tetrapyrrole end products are closely linked to oxygen metabolism.Therefore, the need of exploiting this color resource could be considered for both the diagnosis and treatment of the inflammation.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: General Surgery Unit, Monte Naranco Hospital, Oviedo, Asturias, Spain. joseignacio-arias@sespa.princast.es

ABSTRACT
Tetrapyrrole molecules are distributed in virtually all living organisms on Earth. In mammals, tetrapyrrole end products are closely linked to oxygen metabolism. Since increasingly complex trophic functional systems for using oxygen are considered in the post-traumatic inflammatory response, it can be suggested that tetrapyrrole molecules and, particularly their derived pigments, play a key role in modulating inflammation.In this way, the diverse colorfulness that the inflammatory response triggers during its evolution would reflect the major pathophysiological importance of these pigments in each one of its phases. Therefore, the need of exploiting this color resource could be considered for both the diagnosis and treatment of the inflammation.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Degrees of severity in the contusions. Injury without breakage produced by blunt etiological agents and are made up of concentric areas of different degrees of severity. From the cellular point of view, the first-degree contusion is a reversible injury. The alteration consists in small plasma bleb formation. In the second-degree contusion, a fusion of the blebs is produced and the plasma membrane permeability increases. In the third-degree contusion, cell death is produced by necrosis. At the same time, contusions can be superficial or deep. From the tissue point of view, edema is produced in the first-degree contusion; ecchymosis would be associated with edema in the second-degree contusion; an infarction would be produced in the third-degree contusion. Ecchymosis means that the red blood cells are the first blood cells to infiltrate the interstitial space in post-traumatic inflammation. Ecchymosis, also called a contusion or a bruise, due to its blue color, from the Latin word cardinus (bluish) explains its purple color.
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Figure 1: Degrees of severity in the contusions. Injury without breakage produced by blunt etiological agents and are made up of concentric areas of different degrees of severity. From the cellular point of view, the first-degree contusion is a reversible injury. The alteration consists in small plasma bleb formation. In the second-degree contusion, a fusion of the blebs is produced and the plasma membrane permeability increases. In the third-degree contusion, cell death is produced by necrosis. At the same time, contusions can be superficial or deep. From the tissue point of view, edema is produced in the first-degree contusion; ecchymosis would be associated with edema in the second-degree contusion; an infarction would be produced in the third-degree contusion. Ecchymosis means that the red blood cells are the first blood cells to infiltrate the interstitial space in post-traumatic inflammation. Ecchymosis, also called a contusion or a bruise, due to its blue color, from the Latin word cardinus (bluish) explains its purple color.

Mentions: The contusion, based on its severity, could be classified in three degrees: first degree, characterized by the temporary loss of function. Although it could be associated with edema, the alterations are reversible, and therefore, full recovery is possible. Second degree would occur with ecchymosis, namely with tissue infiltration by red blood cells. The evolution would be ambivalent since cellular and tissue alterations can be reversed or worsened, causing cell death. Thus, the oxygen plays a key role in the evolution of the second degree contusions since extreme near anoxic environment is not compatible with tissue repair [5]. And lastly, the third degree is an irreversible lesion since the injury causes cell death by necrosis and the tissue suffers from infarction [6] (Figure 1).


Surgical inflammation: a pathophysiological rainbow.

Arias JI, Aller MA, Arias J - J Transl Med (2009)

Degrees of severity in the contusions. Injury without breakage produced by blunt etiological agents and are made up of concentric areas of different degrees of severity. From the cellular point of view, the first-degree contusion is a reversible injury. The alteration consists in small plasma bleb formation. In the second-degree contusion, a fusion of the blebs is produced and the plasma membrane permeability increases. In the third-degree contusion, cell death is produced by necrosis. At the same time, contusions can be superficial or deep. From the tissue point of view, edema is produced in the first-degree contusion; ecchymosis would be associated with edema in the second-degree contusion; an infarction would be produced in the third-degree contusion. Ecchymosis means that the red blood cells are the first blood cells to infiltrate the interstitial space in post-traumatic inflammation. Ecchymosis, also called a contusion or a bruise, due to its blue color, from the Latin word cardinus (bluish) explains its purple color.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2667492&req=5

Figure 1: Degrees of severity in the contusions. Injury without breakage produced by blunt etiological agents and are made up of concentric areas of different degrees of severity. From the cellular point of view, the first-degree contusion is a reversible injury. The alteration consists in small plasma bleb formation. In the second-degree contusion, a fusion of the blebs is produced and the plasma membrane permeability increases. In the third-degree contusion, cell death is produced by necrosis. At the same time, contusions can be superficial or deep. From the tissue point of view, edema is produced in the first-degree contusion; ecchymosis would be associated with edema in the second-degree contusion; an infarction would be produced in the third-degree contusion. Ecchymosis means that the red blood cells are the first blood cells to infiltrate the interstitial space in post-traumatic inflammation. Ecchymosis, also called a contusion or a bruise, due to its blue color, from the Latin word cardinus (bluish) explains its purple color.
Mentions: The contusion, based on its severity, could be classified in three degrees: first degree, characterized by the temporary loss of function. Although it could be associated with edema, the alterations are reversible, and therefore, full recovery is possible. Second degree would occur with ecchymosis, namely with tissue infiltration by red blood cells. The evolution would be ambivalent since cellular and tissue alterations can be reversed or worsened, causing cell death. Thus, the oxygen plays a key role in the evolution of the second degree contusions since extreme near anoxic environment is not compatible with tissue repair [5]. And lastly, the third degree is an irreversible lesion since the injury causes cell death by necrosis and the tissue suffers from infarction [6] (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Tetrapyrrole molecules are distributed in virtually all living organisms on Earth.In mammals, tetrapyrrole end products are closely linked to oxygen metabolism.Therefore, the need of exploiting this color resource could be considered for both the diagnosis and treatment of the inflammation.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: General Surgery Unit, Monte Naranco Hospital, Oviedo, Asturias, Spain. joseignacio-arias@sespa.princast.es

ABSTRACT
Tetrapyrrole molecules are distributed in virtually all living organisms on Earth. In mammals, tetrapyrrole end products are closely linked to oxygen metabolism. Since increasingly complex trophic functional systems for using oxygen are considered in the post-traumatic inflammatory response, it can be suggested that tetrapyrrole molecules and, particularly their derived pigments, play a key role in modulating inflammation.In this way, the diverse colorfulness that the inflammatory response triggers during its evolution would reflect the major pathophysiological importance of these pigments in each one of its phases. Therefore, the need of exploiting this color resource could be considered for both the diagnosis and treatment of the inflammation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus