Limits...
A systematic review of US state environmental legislation and regulation with regards to the prevention of neurodevelopmental disabilities and asthma.

Zajac L, Sprecher E, Landrigan PJ, Trasande L - Environ Health (2009)

Bottom Line: However, relatively few analyses have examined the extent to which states protect children from chemical factors in the environment.Using Lexis Nexis and other secondary sources, we systematically reviewed environmental regulation and legislation in the fifty states and the District of Columbia as of July 2007 intended to protect children against neurodevelopmental disabilities and asthma.The need for further study should not inhibit other states and the federal government from pursuing the model regulation and legislation we identified to prevent diseases of environmental origin in children.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA. lauren.zajac@mssm.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: While much attention is focused on national policies intended to protect human health from environmental hazards, states can also prevent environmentally mediated disease through legislation and regulation. However, relatively few analyses have examined the extent to which states protect children from chemical factors in the environment.

Methods: Using Lexis Nexis and other secondary sources, we systematically reviewed environmental regulation and legislation in the fifty states and the District of Columbia as of July 2007 intended to protect children against neurodevelopmental disabilities and asthma.

Results: States rarely address children specifically in environmental regulation and legislation, though many state regulations go far to limit children's exposures to environmental hazards. Northeast and Midwest states have implemented model regulation of mercury emissions, and regulations in five states set exposure limits to volatile organic compound emissions that are more stringent than US Environmental Protection Agency standards.

Discussion: Differences in state environmental regulation and legislation are likely to lead to differences in exposure, and thus to impacts on children's health. The need for further study should not inhibit other states and the federal government from pursuing the model regulation and legislation we identified to prevent diseases of environmental origin in children.

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School Bus Regulation/Legislation Among States.
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Figure 3: School Bus Regulation/Legislation Among States.

Mentions: To limit exposures in the school setting, four states have implemented legislation or regulation that limits the time allowed for school bus idling and/or requires a minimum distance for the parking of buses near school buildings (Figure 3). However, Connecticut is the only state to explicitly enforce these limits and ensure that these regulations have their intended effect of protecting children by making it a finable infraction to leave a school bus idling for more than three consecutive minutes. Ten states have implemented retrofit programs for school buses, but only Rhode Island has required that these retrofit programs will be implemented by September 2010, thereby reducing exposures to children most immediately and effectively. Other state retrofitting programs have uncertain impact in reducing childhood exposures because they only provide inducements (e.g., grants) to encourage implementation. The Rhode Island legislation also requires that newer buses either be retrofitted with a crankcase ventilation system; a model year 2007 or later engine; or the use of alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas, which achieve reductions of diesel particulate matter (DPM) emissions.


A systematic review of US state environmental legislation and regulation with regards to the prevention of neurodevelopmental disabilities and asthma.

Zajac L, Sprecher E, Landrigan PJ, Trasande L - Environ Health (2009)

School Bus Regulation/Legislation Among States.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2667485&req=5

Figure 3: School Bus Regulation/Legislation Among States.
Mentions: To limit exposures in the school setting, four states have implemented legislation or regulation that limits the time allowed for school bus idling and/or requires a minimum distance for the parking of buses near school buildings (Figure 3). However, Connecticut is the only state to explicitly enforce these limits and ensure that these regulations have their intended effect of protecting children by making it a finable infraction to leave a school bus idling for more than three consecutive minutes. Ten states have implemented retrofit programs for school buses, but only Rhode Island has required that these retrofit programs will be implemented by September 2010, thereby reducing exposures to children most immediately and effectively. Other state retrofitting programs have uncertain impact in reducing childhood exposures because they only provide inducements (e.g., grants) to encourage implementation. The Rhode Island legislation also requires that newer buses either be retrofitted with a crankcase ventilation system; a model year 2007 or later engine; or the use of alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas, which achieve reductions of diesel particulate matter (DPM) emissions.

Bottom Line: However, relatively few analyses have examined the extent to which states protect children from chemical factors in the environment.Using Lexis Nexis and other secondary sources, we systematically reviewed environmental regulation and legislation in the fifty states and the District of Columbia as of July 2007 intended to protect children against neurodevelopmental disabilities and asthma.The need for further study should not inhibit other states and the federal government from pursuing the model regulation and legislation we identified to prevent diseases of environmental origin in children.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA. lauren.zajac@mssm.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: While much attention is focused on national policies intended to protect human health from environmental hazards, states can also prevent environmentally mediated disease through legislation and regulation. However, relatively few analyses have examined the extent to which states protect children from chemical factors in the environment.

Methods: Using Lexis Nexis and other secondary sources, we systematically reviewed environmental regulation and legislation in the fifty states and the District of Columbia as of July 2007 intended to protect children against neurodevelopmental disabilities and asthma.

Results: States rarely address children specifically in environmental regulation and legislation, though many state regulations go far to limit children's exposures to environmental hazards. Northeast and Midwest states have implemented model regulation of mercury emissions, and regulations in five states set exposure limits to volatile organic compound emissions that are more stringent than US Environmental Protection Agency standards.

Discussion: Differences in state environmental regulation and legislation are likely to lead to differences in exposure, and thus to impacts on children's health. The need for further study should not inhibit other states and the federal government from pursuing the model regulation and legislation we identified to prevent diseases of environmental origin in children.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus