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A community based field research project investigating anaemia amongst young children living in rural Karnataka, India: a cross sectional study.

Pasricha SR, Vijaykumar V, Prashanth NS, Sudarshan H, Biggs BA, Black J, Shet A - BMC Public Health (2009)

Bottom Line: Adopting this study design, we have recruited 415 of 470 potentially eligible children who were living in the selected villages.We achieved support from the community and cooperation of local health workers.However, many further studies are required to understand the health problems of the population of rural India, and our study design and technique provide a useful demonstration of a successful strategy.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: The Nossal Institute for Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. santapasricha@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Background: Anaemia is an important problem amongst young children living in rural India. However, there has not previously been a detailed study of the biological aetiology of this anaemia, exploring the relative contributions of iron, vitamin B12, folate and Vitamin A deficiency, inflammation, genetic haemoglobinopathy, hookworm and malaria. Nor have studies related these aetiologic biological factors to household food security, standard of living and child feeding practices. Barriers to conducting such work have included perceived reluctance of village communities to permit their children to undergo venipuncture, and logistical issues. We have successfully completed a community based, cross sectional field study exploring in detail the causes of anaemia amongst young children in a rural setting.

Methods and design: A cross sectional, community based study. We engaged in extensive community consultation and tailored our study design to the outcomes of these discussions. We utilised local women as field workers, harnessing the capacity of local health workers to assist with the study. We adopted a programmatic approach with a census rather than random sampling strategy in the village, incorporating appropriate case management for children identified to have anaemia. We developed a questionnaire based on existing standard measurement tools for standard of living, food security and nutrition. Specimen processing was conducted at the Primary Health Centre laboratory prior to transport to an urban research laboratory.

Discussion: Adopting this study design, we have recruited 415 of 470 potentially eligible children who were living in the selected villages. We achieved support from the community and cooperation of local health workers. Our results will improve the understanding into anaemia amongst young children in rural India. However, many further studies are required to understand the health problems of the population of rural India, and our study design and technique provide a useful demonstration of a successful strategy.

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Diagram depicting hypothesised associations of the anaemia.
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Figure 1: Diagram depicting hypothesised associations of the anaemia.

Mentions: Our primary objective was to identify the prevalence of iron, vitamin B12, folate and vitamin A deficiencies, genetic haemoglobinopathies, malaria and hookworm in a population of 12–23 month old children living in rural Karnataka, and to determine the contribution of these to the overall burden of anaemia and haemoglobin levels. Finally, we sought to establish whether there were associations between these conditions and more distal risk factors, such as diet, food insecurity, standard of living, health services, and maternal nutritional status and maternal anaemia. These potential associations are depicted in Figure 1. We also intended to evaluate the contribution of these risk factors to adverse growth effects in terms of stunting, underweight and wasting. Of particular interest were associations between child feeding practices and breast feeding practices and outcomes such as anaemia, micronutrient deficiency and growth. We also sought to evaluate the delivery of current anaemia prophylaxis/therapy strategies.


A community based field research project investigating anaemia amongst young children living in rural Karnataka, India: a cross sectional study.

Pasricha SR, Vijaykumar V, Prashanth NS, Sudarshan H, Biggs BA, Black J, Shet A - BMC Public Health (2009)

Diagram depicting hypothesised associations of the anaemia.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2667415&req=5

Figure 1: Diagram depicting hypothesised associations of the anaemia.
Mentions: Our primary objective was to identify the prevalence of iron, vitamin B12, folate and vitamin A deficiencies, genetic haemoglobinopathies, malaria and hookworm in a population of 12–23 month old children living in rural Karnataka, and to determine the contribution of these to the overall burden of anaemia and haemoglobin levels. Finally, we sought to establish whether there were associations between these conditions and more distal risk factors, such as diet, food insecurity, standard of living, health services, and maternal nutritional status and maternal anaemia. These potential associations are depicted in Figure 1. We also intended to evaluate the contribution of these risk factors to adverse growth effects in terms of stunting, underweight and wasting. Of particular interest were associations between child feeding practices and breast feeding practices and outcomes such as anaemia, micronutrient deficiency and growth. We also sought to evaluate the delivery of current anaemia prophylaxis/therapy strategies.

Bottom Line: Adopting this study design, we have recruited 415 of 470 potentially eligible children who were living in the selected villages.We achieved support from the community and cooperation of local health workers.However, many further studies are required to understand the health problems of the population of rural India, and our study design and technique provide a useful demonstration of a successful strategy.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: The Nossal Institute for Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. santapasricha@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Background: Anaemia is an important problem amongst young children living in rural India. However, there has not previously been a detailed study of the biological aetiology of this anaemia, exploring the relative contributions of iron, vitamin B12, folate and Vitamin A deficiency, inflammation, genetic haemoglobinopathy, hookworm and malaria. Nor have studies related these aetiologic biological factors to household food security, standard of living and child feeding practices. Barriers to conducting such work have included perceived reluctance of village communities to permit their children to undergo venipuncture, and logistical issues. We have successfully completed a community based, cross sectional field study exploring in detail the causes of anaemia amongst young children in a rural setting.

Methods and design: A cross sectional, community based study. We engaged in extensive community consultation and tailored our study design to the outcomes of these discussions. We utilised local women as field workers, harnessing the capacity of local health workers to assist with the study. We adopted a programmatic approach with a census rather than random sampling strategy in the village, incorporating appropriate case management for children identified to have anaemia. We developed a questionnaire based on existing standard measurement tools for standard of living, food security and nutrition. Specimen processing was conducted at the Primary Health Centre laboratory prior to transport to an urban research laboratory.

Discussion: Adopting this study design, we have recruited 415 of 470 potentially eligible children who were living in the selected villages. We achieved support from the community and cooperation of local health workers. Our results will improve the understanding into anaemia amongst young children in rural India. However, many further studies are required to understand the health problems of the population of rural India, and our study design and technique provide a useful demonstration of a successful strategy.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus