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Characterization of avian influenza viruses A (H5N1) from wild birds, Hong Kong, 2004-2008.

Smith GJ, Vijaykrishna D, Ellis TM, Dyrting KC, Leung YH, Bahl J, Wong CW, Kai H, Chow MK, Duan L, Chan AS, Zhang LJ, Chen H, Luk GS, Peiris JS, Guan Y - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2009)

Bottom Line: From January 2004 through June 2008, surveillance of dead wild birds in Hong Kong, People's Republic of China, periodically detected highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses (H5N1) in individual birds from different species.During this period, no viruses of subtype H5N1 were detected in poultry on farms and in markets in Hong Kong despite intensive surveillance.Genetic and antigenic characterization of 47 HPAI (H5N1) viruses isolated from dead wild birds in Hong Kong showed that these isolates belonged to 2 antigenically distinct virus groups: clades 2.3.4 and 2.3.2.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases/The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
From January 2004 through June 2008, surveillance of dead wild birds in Hong Kong, People's Republic of China, periodically detected highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses (H5N1) in individual birds from different species. During this period, no viruses of subtype H5N1 were detected in poultry on farms and in markets in Hong Kong despite intensive surveillance. Thus, these findings in wild birds demonstrate the potential for wild birds to disseminate HPAI viruses (H5N1) to areas otherwise free from the viruses. Genetic and antigenic characterization of 47 HPAI (H5N1) viruses isolated from dead wild birds in Hong Kong showed that these isolates belonged to 2 antigenically distinct virus groups: clades 2.3.4 and 2.3.2. Although research has shown that clade 2.3.4 viruses are established in poultry in Asia, the emergence of clade 2.3.2 viruses in nonpasserine birds from Hong Kong, Japan, and Russia raises the possibility that this virus lineage may have become established in wild birds.

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Phylogenetic relationships of the hemagglutinin genes of representative influenza viruses. Numbers above and below the branch nodes indicate neighbor-joining bootstrap values >70% and Bayesian posterior probabilities >95%, respectively. Not all supports are shown due to space constraints. Analyses were based on nt 49–1,677 and the tree rooted to duck/Hokkaido/51/1996. Numbers to the right of the figure refer to World Health Organization influenza (H5N1) clade designations (Appendix Table). Viruses isolated from wild birds and chickens in Hong Kong from 2004–2008 are in boldface. *Indicates viruses included in the antigenic analysis (Table). Scale bar indicates 0.01 nucleotide substitutions per site. Ck, chicken; Dk, duck; Gs, goose; HK, Hong Kong.
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Figure 1: Phylogenetic relationships of the hemagglutinin genes of representative influenza viruses. Numbers above and below the branch nodes indicate neighbor-joining bootstrap values >70% and Bayesian posterior probabilities >95%, respectively. Not all supports are shown due to space constraints. Analyses were based on nt 49–1,677 and the tree rooted to duck/Hokkaido/51/1996. Numbers to the right of the figure refer to World Health Organization influenza (H5N1) clade designations (Appendix Table). Viruses isolated from wild birds and chickens in Hong Kong from 2004–2008 are in boldface. *Indicates viruses included in the antigenic analysis (Table). Scale bar indicates 0.01 nucleotide substitutions per site. Ck, chicken; Dk, duck; Gs, goose; HK, Hong Kong.

Mentions: To understand the molecular epidemiology of the viruses isolated from the dead birds, we conducted phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA), neuramindase (NA), and each of the 6 internal gene segments of the viruses, along with the Gs/GD-like HPAI viruses (H5N1) isolated from different regions of Hong Kong. In the HA gene tree, the wild bird viruses fell into 2 main groups, either clade 2.3.2 or 2.3.4, with the exception of 1 virus in clade 9 (Figure). The phylogenetic placement of these viruses corresponds well with the known evolution of the influenza virus subtype H5N1 that has been documented in Asia.


Characterization of avian influenza viruses A (H5N1) from wild birds, Hong Kong, 2004-2008.

Smith GJ, Vijaykrishna D, Ellis TM, Dyrting KC, Leung YH, Bahl J, Wong CW, Kai H, Chow MK, Duan L, Chan AS, Zhang LJ, Chen H, Luk GS, Peiris JS, Guan Y - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2009)

Phylogenetic relationships of the hemagglutinin genes of representative influenza viruses. Numbers above and below the branch nodes indicate neighbor-joining bootstrap values >70% and Bayesian posterior probabilities >95%, respectively. Not all supports are shown due to space constraints. Analyses were based on nt 49–1,677 and the tree rooted to duck/Hokkaido/51/1996. Numbers to the right of the figure refer to World Health Organization influenza (H5N1) clade designations (Appendix Table). Viruses isolated from wild birds and chickens in Hong Kong from 2004–2008 are in boldface. *Indicates viruses included in the antigenic analysis (Table). Scale bar indicates 0.01 nucleotide substitutions per site. Ck, chicken; Dk, duck; Gs, goose; HK, Hong Kong.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2666293&req=5

Figure 1: Phylogenetic relationships of the hemagglutinin genes of representative influenza viruses. Numbers above and below the branch nodes indicate neighbor-joining bootstrap values >70% and Bayesian posterior probabilities >95%, respectively. Not all supports are shown due to space constraints. Analyses were based on nt 49–1,677 and the tree rooted to duck/Hokkaido/51/1996. Numbers to the right of the figure refer to World Health Organization influenza (H5N1) clade designations (Appendix Table). Viruses isolated from wild birds and chickens in Hong Kong from 2004–2008 are in boldface. *Indicates viruses included in the antigenic analysis (Table). Scale bar indicates 0.01 nucleotide substitutions per site. Ck, chicken; Dk, duck; Gs, goose; HK, Hong Kong.
Mentions: To understand the molecular epidemiology of the viruses isolated from the dead birds, we conducted phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA), neuramindase (NA), and each of the 6 internal gene segments of the viruses, along with the Gs/GD-like HPAI viruses (H5N1) isolated from different regions of Hong Kong. In the HA gene tree, the wild bird viruses fell into 2 main groups, either clade 2.3.2 or 2.3.4, with the exception of 1 virus in clade 9 (Figure). The phylogenetic placement of these viruses corresponds well with the known evolution of the influenza virus subtype H5N1 that has been documented in Asia.

Bottom Line: From January 2004 through June 2008, surveillance of dead wild birds in Hong Kong, People's Republic of China, periodically detected highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses (H5N1) in individual birds from different species.During this period, no viruses of subtype H5N1 were detected in poultry on farms and in markets in Hong Kong despite intensive surveillance.Genetic and antigenic characterization of 47 HPAI (H5N1) viruses isolated from dead wild birds in Hong Kong showed that these isolates belonged to 2 antigenically distinct virus groups: clades 2.3.4 and 2.3.2.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases/The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
From January 2004 through June 2008, surveillance of dead wild birds in Hong Kong, People's Republic of China, periodically detected highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses (H5N1) in individual birds from different species. During this period, no viruses of subtype H5N1 were detected in poultry on farms and in markets in Hong Kong despite intensive surveillance. Thus, these findings in wild birds demonstrate the potential for wild birds to disseminate HPAI viruses (H5N1) to areas otherwise free from the viruses. Genetic and antigenic characterization of 47 HPAI (H5N1) viruses isolated from dead wild birds in Hong Kong showed that these isolates belonged to 2 antigenically distinct virus groups: clades 2.3.4 and 2.3.2. Although research has shown that clade 2.3.4 viruses are established in poultry in Asia, the emergence of clade 2.3.2 viruses in nonpasserine birds from Hong Kong, Japan, and Russia raises the possibility that this virus lineage may have become established in wild birds.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus