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Comparison of bee products based on assays of antioxidant capacities.

Nakajima Y, Tsuruma K, Shimazawa M, Mishima S, Hara H - BMC Complement Altern Med (2009)

Bottom Line: The rank order of antioxidant potencies was as follows: WEP > EEP > pollen, but neither RJ nor 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) had any effects.Concerning the main constituents of WEP, the rank order of antioxidant effects was: caffeic acid > artepillin C > drupanin, but neither baccharin nor coumaric acid had any effects.Pollen, too, exhibited strong antioxidant effects.

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Affiliation: Department of Biofunctional Evaluation, Molecular Pharmacology, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 5-6-1 Mitahora-higashi, Gifu, Japan. yoshimi_cp@yahoo.co.jp

ABSTRACT

Background: Bee products (including propolis, royal jelly, and bee pollen) are popular, traditional health foods. We compared antioxidant effects among water and ethanol extracts of Brazilian green propolis (WEP or EEP), its main constituents, water-soluble royal jelly (RJ), and an ethanol extract of bee pollen.

Methods: The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-, superoxide anion (O2.-)-, and hydroxyl radical (HO.)- scavenging capacities of bee products were measured using antioxidant capacity assays that employed the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive probe 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA) or aminophenyl fluorescein (APF).

Results: The rank order of antioxidant potencies was as follows: WEP > EEP > pollen, but neither RJ nor 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) had any effects. Concerning the main constituents of WEP, the rank order of antioxidant effects was: caffeic acid > artepillin C > drupanin, but neither baccharin nor coumaric acid had any effects. The scavenging effects of caffeic acid were as powerful as those of trolox, but stronger than those of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or vitamin C.

Conclusion: On the basis of the present assays, propolis is the most powerful antioxidant of all the bee product examined, and its effect may be partly due to the various caffeic acids it contains. Pollen, too, exhibited strong antioxidant effects.

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Antioxidant activities of main constituents of WEP (caffeoylquinic acid derivatives) towards production of various ROS (H2O2, O2·-, HO·) in term of fluorescence intensity. (A-C) 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid. (D-F) 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid. (G-I) 3-caffeoylqic acid (Chlorogenic acid). Integrals of ROS production were calculated from time-kinetics curves. ROS were (A, D, G) H2O2, (B, E, H) O2·-, (C, F, I) HO·. Data are shown as mean ± S.E.M., n = 6. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 vs. vehicle plus ROS. V: vehicle.
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Figure 3: Antioxidant activities of main constituents of WEP (caffeoylquinic acid derivatives) towards production of various ROS (H2O2, O2·-, HO·) in term of fluorescence intensity. (A-C) 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid. (D-F) 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid. (G-I) 3-caffeoylqic acid (Chlorogenic acid). Integrals of ROS production were calculated from time-kinetics curves. ROS were (A, D, G) H2O2, (B, E, H) O2·-, (C, F, I) HO·. Data are shown as mean ± S.E.M., n = 6. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 vs. vehicle plus ROS. V: vehicle.

Mentions: To investigate which WEP constituents might be responsible for its strong antioxidative effects, we examined the antioxidant effects of three main constituents of WEP (3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and 3-caffeoylquinic acid) (Figure 3). Each caffeoylquinic acid derivative significantly reduced all three ROS (H2O2, O2·-, and HO·). Specifically, H2O2 and O2·- were strongly scavenged by mono-caffeoylquinic acid (3-caffeoylquinic acid), while the HO· was strongly scavenged by the two di-caffeoylquinic acids (3,4- and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid). All three caffeoylquinic acid derivatives scavenged the O2·- more effectively than the other ROS (Table 1). These results indicate that the potent antioxidative activities of WEP may be due to those of the caffeoylquinic acid derivatives present in WEP.


Comparison of bee products based on assays of antioxidant capacities.

Nakajima Y, Tsuruma K, Shimazawa M, Mishima S, Hara H - BMC Complement Altern Med (2009)

Antioxidant activities of main constituents of WEP (caffeoylquinic acid derivatives) towards production of various ROS (H2O2, O2·-, HO·) in term of fluorescence intensity. (A-C) 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid. (D-F) 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid. (G-I) 3-caffeoylqic acid (Chlorogenic acid). Integrals of ROS production were calculated from time-kinetics curves. ROS were (A, D, G) H2O2, (B, E, H) O2·-, (C, F, I) HO·. Data are shown as mean ± S.E.M., n = 6. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 vs. vehicle plus ROS. V: vehicle.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2664783&req=5

Figure 3: Antioxidant activities of main constituents of WEP (caffeoylquinic acid derivatives) towards production of various ROS (H2O2, O2·-, HO·) in term of fluorescence intensity. (A-C) 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid. (D-F) 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid. (G-I) 3-caffeoylqic acid (Chlorogenic acid). Integrals of ROS production were calculated from time-kinetics curves. ROS were (A, D, G) H2O2, (B, E, H) O2·-, (C, F, I) HO·. Data are shown as mean ± S.E.M., n = 6. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 vs. vehicle plus ROS. V: vehicle.
Mentions: To investigate which WEP constituents might be responsible for its strong antioxidative effects, we examined the antioxidant effects of three main constituents of WEP (3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and 3-caffeoylquinic acid) (Figure 3). Each caffeoylquinic acid derivative significantly reduced all three ROS (H2O2, O2·-, and HO·). Specifically, H2O2 and O2·- were strongly scavenged by mono-caffeoylquinic acid (3-caffeoylquinic acid), while the HO· was strongly scavenged by the two di-caffeoylquinic acids (3,4- and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid). All three caffeoylquinic acid derivatives scavenged the O2·- more effectively than the other ROS (Table 1). These results indicate that the potent antioxidative activities of WEP may be due to those of the caffeoylquinic acid derivatives present in WEP.

Bottom Line: The rank order of antioxidant potencies was as follows: WEP > EEP > pollen, but neither RJ nor 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) had any effects.Concerning the main constituents of WEP, the rank order of antioxidant effects was: caffeic acid > artepillin C > drupanin, but neither baccharin nor coumaric acid had any effects.Pollen, too, exhibited strong antioxidant effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biofunctional Evaluation, Molecular Pharmacology, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 5-6-1 Mitahora-higashi, Gifu, Japan. yoshimi_cp@yahoo.co.jp

ABSTRACT

Background: Bee products (including propolis, royal jelly, and bee pollen) are popular, traditional health foods. We compared antioxidant effects among water and ethanol extracts of Brazilian green propolis (WEP or EEP), its main constituents, water-soluble royal jelly (RJ), and an ethanol extract of bee pollen.

Methods: The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-, superoxide anion (O2.-)-, and hydroxyl radical (HO.)- scavenging capacities of bee products were measured using antioxidant capacity assays that employed the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive probe 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA) or aminophenyl fluorescein (APF).

Results: The rank order of antioxidant potencies was as follows: WEP > EEP > pollen, but neither RJ nor 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) had any effects. Concerning the main constituents of WEP, the rank order of antioxidant effects was: caffeic acid > artepillin C > drupanin, but neither baccharin nor coumaric acid had any effects. The scavenging effects of caffeic acid were as powerful as those of trolox, but stronger than those of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or vitamin C.

Conclusion: On the basis of the present assays, propolis is the most powerful antioxidant of all the bee product examined, and its effect may be partly due to the various caffeic acids it contains. Pollen, too, exhibited strong antioxidant effects.

Show MeSH