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Comparison of bee products based on assays of antioxidant capacities.

Nakajima Y, Tsuruma K, Shimazawa M, Mishima S, Hara H - BMC Complement Altern Med (2009)

Bottom Line: The rank order of antioxidant potencies was as follows: WEP > EEP > pollen, but neither RJ nor 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) had any effects.Concerning the main constituents of WEP, the rank order of antioxidant effects was: caffeic acid > artepillin C > drupanin, but neither baccharin nor coumaric acid had any effects.Pollen, too, exhibited strong antioxidant effects.

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Affiliation: Department of Biofunctional Evaluation, Molecular Pharmacology, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 5-6-1 Mitahora-higashi, Gifu, Japan. yoshimi_cp@yahoo.co.jp

ABSTRACT

Background: Bee products (including propolis, royal jelly, and bee pollen) are popular, traditional health foods. We compared antioxidant effects among water and ethanol extracts of Brazilian green propolis (WEP or EEP), its main constituents, water-soluble royal jelly (RJ), and an ethanol extract of bee pollen.

Methods: The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-, superoxide anion (O2.-)-, and hydroxyl radical (HO.)- scavenging capacities of bee products were measured using antioxidant capacity assays that employed the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive probe 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA) or aminophenyl fluorescein (APF).

Results: The rank order of antioxidant potencies was as follows: WEP > EEP > pollen, but neither RJ nor 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) had any effects. Concerning the main constituents of WEP, the rank order of antioxidant effects was: caffeic acid > artepillin C > drupanin, but neither baccharin nor coumaric acid had any effects. The scavenging effects of caffeic acid were as powerful as those of trolox, but stronger than those of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or vitamin C.

Conclusion: On the basis of the present assays, propolis is the most powerful antioxidant of all the bee product examined, and its effect may be partly due to the various caffeic acids it contains. Pollen, too, exhibited strong antioxidant effects.

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Antioxidant activities of bee products and trolox towards production of various ROS (H2O2, O2·-, HO·) in term of fluorescence intensity. (A-C) Bee pollen. (D-F) Royal jelly (RJ). (G-I) Trolox (a derivative of α-tocopherol). Integrals of ROS production were calculated from time-kinetics curves. ROS were (A, D, G) H2O2, (B, E, H) O2·-, (C, F, I) HO·. Data are shown as mean ± S.E.M., n = 6. **P < 0.01 vs. vehicle plus ROS. V: vehicle.
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Figure 2: Antioxidant activities of bee products and trolox towards production of various ROS (H2O2, O2·-, HO·) in term of fluorescence intensity. (A-C) Bee pollen. (D-F) Royal jelly (RJ). (G-I) Trolox (a derivative of α-tocopherol). Integrals of ROS production were calculated from time-kinetics curves. ROS were (A, D, G) H2O2, (B, E, H) O2·-, (C, F, I) HO·. Data are shown as mean ± S.E.M., n = 6. **P < 0.01 vs. vehicle plus ROS. V: vehicle.

Mentions: To compare the antioxidative effects of other bee products, including RJ and pollen, with those of propolis, we employed antioxidant-capacity assay. Pretreatment with pollen at 1–300 μg/ml scavenged the H2O2 in RGC-5 (Fig. 2A). Similarly, pretreatment with pollen at 3–100 μg/ml reduced the O2·- (Fig. 2B), while pollen at 10–300 μg/ml reduced the HO· (Fig. 2C). RJ with IC50 values of more than 100 μg/ml, did not scavenge any of the ROS (Fig. 2D–F). From the IC50 values given in Table 1, there are marked differences in antioxidant activities among bee products, the rank order being: propolis > pollen > RJ. Notably, propolis and pollen each exhibited weaker scavenging activity against the HO· than against H2O2 and O2·-.


Comparison of bee products based on assays of antioxidant capacities.

Nakajima Y, Tsuruma K, Shimazawa M, Mishima S, Hara H - BMC Complement Altern Med (2009)

Antioxidant activities of bee products and trolox towards production of various ROS (H2O2, O2·-, HO·) in term of fluorescence intensity. (A-C) Bee pollen. (D-F) Royal jelly (RJ). (G-I) Trolox (a derivative of α-tocopherol). Integrals of ROS production were calculated from time-kinetics curves. ROS were (A, D, G) H2O2, (B, E, H) O2·-, (C, F, I) HO·. Data are shown as mean ± S.E.M., n = 6. **P < 0.01 vs. vehicle plus ROS. V: vehicle.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2664783&req=5

Figure 2: Antioxidant activities of bee products and trolox towards production of various ROS (H2O2, O2·-, HO·) in term of fluorescence intensity. (A-C) Bee pollen. (D-F) Royal jelly (RJ). (G-I) Trolox (a derivative of α-tocopherol). Integrals of ROS production were calculated from time-kinetics curves. ROS were (A, D, G) H2O2, (B, E, H) O2·-, (C, F, I) HO·. Data are shown as mean ± S.E.M., n = 6. **P < 0.01 vs. vehicle plus ROS. V: vehicle.
Mentions: To compare the antioxidative effects of other bee products, including RJ and pollen, with those of propolis, we employed antioxidant-capacity assay. Pretreatment with pollen at 1–300 μg/ml scavenged the H2O2 in RGC-5 (Fig. 2A). Similarly, pretreatment with pollen at 3–100 μg/ml reduced the O2·- (Fig. 2B), while pollen at 10–300 μg/ml reduced the HO· (Fig. 2C). RJ with IC50 values of more than 100 μg/ml, did not scavenge any of the ROS (Fig. 2D–F). From the IC50 values given in Table 1, there are marked differences in antioxidant activities among bee products, the rank order being: propolis > pollen > RJ. Notably, propolis and pollen each exhibited weaker scavenging activity against the HO· than against H2O2 and O2·-.

Bottom Line: The rank order of antioxidant potencies was as follows: WEP > EEP > pollen, but neither RJ nor 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) had any effects.Concerning the main constituents of WEP, the rank order of antioxidant effects was: caffeic acid > artepillin C > drupanin, but neither baccharin nor coumaric acid had any effects.Pollen, too, exhibited strong antioxidant effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biofunctional Evaluation, Molecular Pharmacology, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 5-6-1 Mitahora-higashi, Gifu, Japan. yoshimi_cp@yahoo.co.jp

ABSTRACT

Background: Bee products (including propolis, royal jelly, and bee pollen) are popular, traditional health foods. We compared antioxidant effects among water and ethanol extracts of Brazilian green propolis (WEP or EEP), its main constituents, water-soluble royal jelly (RJ), and an ethanol extract of bee pollen.

Methods: The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-, superoxide anion (O2.-)-, and hydroxyl radical (HO.)- scavenging capacities of bee products were measured using antioxidant capacity assays that employed the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive probe 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA) or aminophenyl fluorescein (APF).

Results: The rank order of antioxidant potencies was as follows: WEP > EEP > pollen, but neither RJ nor 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) had any effects. Concerning the main constituents of WEP, the rank order of antioxidant effects was: caffeic acid > artepillin C > drupanin, but neither baccharin nor coumaric acid had any effects. The scavenging effects of caffeic acid were as powerful as those of trolox, but stronger than those of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or vitamin C.

Conclusion: On the basis of the present assays, propolis is the most powerful antioxidant of all the bee product examined, and its effect may be partly due to the various caffeic acids it contains. Pollen, too, exhibited strong antioxidant effects.

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