Limits...
An overview of conventional and emerging analytical methods for the determination of mycotoxins.

Cigić IK, Prosen H - Int J Mol Sci (2009)

Bottom Line: However, an overview of other analytical and sample preparation methods less often used is also given.Finally, different matrices where mycotoxins have to be determined are discussed with the emphasis on their specific characteristics important for the analysis (human food and beverages, animal feed, biological samples, environmental samples).Various issues important for accurate qualitative and quantitative analyses are critically discussed: sampling and choice of representative sample, sample preparation and possible bias associated with it, specificity of the analytical method and critical evaluation of results.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. irena.kralj-cigic@fkkt.uni-lj.si

ABSTRACT
Mycotoxins are a group of compounds produced by various fungi and excreted into the matrices on which they grow, often food intended for human consumption or animal feed. The high toxicity and carcinogenicity of these compounds and their ability to cause various pathological conditions has led to widespread screening of foods and feeds potentially polluted with them. Maximum permissible levels in different matrices have also been established for some toxins. As these are quite low, analytical methods for determination of mycotoxins have to be both sensitive and specific. In addition, an appropriate sample preparation and pre-concentration method is needed to isolate analytes from rather complicated samples. In this article, an overview of methods for analysis and sample preparation published in the last ten years is given for the most often encountered mycotoxins in different samples, mainly in food. Special emphasis is on liquid chromatography with fluorescence and mass spectrometric detection, while in the field of sample preparation various solid-phase extraction approaches are discussed. However, an overview of other analytical and sample preparation methods less often used is also given. Finally, different matrices where mycotoxins have to be determined are discussed with the emphasis on their specific characteristics important for the analysis (human food and beverages, animal feed, biological samples, environmental samples). Various issues important for accurate qualitative and quantitative analyses are critically discussed: sampling and choice of representative sample, sample preparation and possible bias associated with it, specificity of the analytical method and critical evaluation of results.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Structures of aflatoxins {AFs} B1, B2, M1, G1, G2.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2662450&req=5

f1-ijms-10-00062: Structures of aflatoxins {AFs} B1, B2, M1, G1, G2.

Mentions: Table 1 lists the major groups of mycotoxins or individual compounds that are the most interesting from the analytical point of view as stated above. The abbrevations in the Table 1 are used throughout the text. Moreover, fungal species that produce them and the most common health disorders they cause are also listed. The chemical structures of these compounds are shown in Figures 1–6. There are other toxicologically important mycotoxins not included in Table 1 as they are less frequently encountered, e.g. penitrems, thomitrems, lolitrem, verruculogen, griseofulvin, chaetoglobosin, sambutoxin, citreoviridin, apicidin, roridin, monacolin K, phomopsins, sporidesmins, AAL toxins, satratoxins etc. [1, 2, 12, 17].


An overview of conventional and emerging analytical methods for the determination of mycotoxins.

Cigić IK, Prosen H - Int J Mol Sci (2009)

Structures of aflatoxins {AFs} B1, B2, M1, G1, G2.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2662450&req=5

f1-ijms-10-00062: Structures of aflatoxins {AFs} B1, B2, M1, G1, G2.
Mentions: Table 1 lists the major groups of mycotoxins or individual compounds that are the most interesting from the analytical point of view as stated above. The abbrevations in the Table 1 are used throughout the text. Moreover, fungal species that produce them and the most common health disorders they cause are also listed. The chemical structures of these compounds are shown in Figures 1–6. There are other toxicologically important mycotoxins not included in Table 1 as they are less frequently encountered, e.g. penitrems, thomitrems, lolitrem, verruculogen, griseofulvin, chaetoglobosin, sambutoxin, citreoviridin, apicidin, roridin, monacolin K, phomopsins, sporidesmins, AAL toxins, satratoxins etc. [1, 2, 12, 17].

Bottom Line: However, an overview of other analytical and sample preparation methods less often used is also given.Finally, different matrices where mycotoxins have to be determined are discussed with the emphasis on their specific characteristics important for the analysis (human food and beverages, animal feed, biological samples, environmental samples).Various issues important for accurate qualitative and quantitative analyses are critically discussed: sampling and choice of representative sample, sample preparation and possible bias associated with it, specificity of the analytical method and critical evaluation of results.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. irena.kralj-cigic@fkkt.uni-lj.si

ABSTRACT
Mycotoxins are a group of compounds produced by various fungi and excreted into the matrices on which they grow, often food intended for human consumption or animal feed. The high toxicity and carcinogenicity of these compounds and their ability to cause various pathological conditions has led to widespread screening of foods and feeds potentially polluted with them. Maximum permissible levels in different matrices have also been established for some toxins. As these are quite low, analytical methods for determination of mycotoxins have to be both sensitive and specific. In addition, an appropriate sample preparation and pre-concentration method is needed to isolate analytes from rather complicated samples. In this article, an overview of methods for analysis and sample preparation published in the last ten years is given for the most often encountered mycotoxins in different samples, mainly in food. Special emphasis is on liquid chromatography with fluorescence and mass spectrometric detection, while in the field of sample preparation various solid-phase extraction approaches are discussed. However, an overview of other analytical and sample preparation methods less often used is also given. Finally, different matrices where mycotoxins have to be determined are discussed with the emphasis on their specific characteristics important for the analysis (human food and beverages, animal feed, biological samples, environmental samples). Various issues important for accurate qualitative and quantitative analyses are critically discussed: sampling and choice of representative sample, sample preparation and possible bias associated with it, specificity of the analytical method and critical evaluation of results.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus