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Suppression of HIV-1 replication by microRNA effectors.

Chable-Bessia C, Meziane O, Latreille D, Triboulet R, Zamborlini A, Wagschal A, Jacquet JM, Reynes J, Levy Y, Saib A, Bennasser Y, Benkirane M - Retrovirology (2009)

Bottom Line: In this study we explored the role of cellular factors required for miRNA-mediated mRNA translational inhibition in regulating HIV-1 gene expression.Here we show that HIV-1 mRNAs associate and co-localize with components of the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC), and we characterize some of the proteins required for miRNA-mediated silencing (miRNA effectors).RCK/p54, GW182, LSm-1 and XRN1 negatively regulate HIV-1 gene expression by preventing viral mRNA association with polysomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut de Génétique Humaine CNRS UPR1142, Laboratoire de Virologie Moléculaire, Montpellier, France. christine.chable-bessia@igh.cnrs.fr

ABSTRACT
The rate of HIV-1 gene expression is a key step that determines the kinetics of virus spread and AIDS progression. Viral entry and gene expression were described to be the key determinants for cell permissiveness to HIV. Recent reports highlighted the involvement of miRNA in regulating HIV-1 replication post-transcriptionally. In this study we explored the role of cellular factors required for miRNA-mediated mRNA translational inhibition in regulating HIV-1 gene expression. Here we show that HIV-1 mRNAs associate and co-localize with components of the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC), and we characterize some of the proteins required for miRNA-mediated silencing (miRNA effectors). RCK/p54, GW182, LSm-1 and XRN1 negatively regulate HIV-1 gene expression by preventing viral mRNA association with polysomes. Interestingly, knockdown of RCK/p54 or DGCR8 resulted in virus reactivation in PBMCs isolated from HIV infected patients treated with suppressive HAART.

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HIV-1 mRNAs associate with Argonaute 2. 293 cells were transfected with HIV-1 molecular clone pNL4-3, Myc-Ago2 or Myc-AgoPAZ9 as indicated. 48 hours later cells were harvested and cytoplasmic extracts were prepared. Total RNA was purified from a fraction of harvested cells while the rest was subjected to immunoprecipitation using anti-Myc antibody. After washing, a fraction was used to analyze the amount of Myc-Ago2 and Myc-Ago2PAZ9 immunoprecipitated by Western blotting (a), and the rest of the Myc-IPs was used for RNA extraction. HIV-1 mRNAs (TAR and unspliced), Hdm2 and GAPDH mRNA were quantified from total RNA (b, left panel) or from Myc immunoprecipitated mRNPs (b, right panel) by RT-PCR using specific oligonucleotides. c) Experiment was performed as in fig 3 except that 293 cells were transfected with HIV-1 ΔPSP which contains a partial gag/pol deletion but retains all the mRNA splicing sites [66], and 32P-labelled nucleotides were used in the PCR reaction. PCR products were visualized by autoradiography.
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Figure 3: HIV-1 mRNAs associate with Argonaute 2. 293 cells were transfected with HIV-1 molecular clone pNL4-3, Myc-Ago2 or Myc-AgoPAZ9 as indicated. 48 hours later cells were harvested and cytoplasmic extracts were prepared. Total RNA was purified from a fraction of harvested cells while the rest was subjected to immunoprecipitation using anti-Myc antibody. After washing, a fraction was used to analyze the amount of Myc-Ago2 and Myc-Ago2PAZ9 immunoprecipitated by Western blotting (a), and the rest of the Myc-IPs was used for RNA extraction. HIV-1 mRNAs (TAR and unspliced), Hdm2 and GAPDH mRNA were quantified from total RNA (b, left panel) or from Myc immunoprecipitated mRNPs (b, right panel) by RT-PCR using specific oligonucleotides. c) Experiment was performed as in fig 3 except that 293 cells were transfected with HIV-1 ΔPSP which contains a partial gag/pol deletion but retains all the mRNA splicing sites [66], and 32P-labelled nucleotides were used in the PCR reaction. PCR products were visualized by autoradiography.

Mentions: We next investigated the physical interaction between RNAi effectors and HIV-1 mRNA. 293 cells were mock transfected or transfected with combinations of pNL4-3, Myc-Ago2, a central component of the RISC complex, or its RNA-binding mutant Myc-Ago2PAZ9 constructs as indicated in figures 3 and 4. First, we verified that Myc-Ago2 and Myc-Ago2PAZ9 were equally expressed (Figure 3a). Second, cytoplasmic extracts were prepared, and a fraction was used for total RNA extraction while the rest was subjected to immunoprecipitation using anti-Myc antibody to purify Myc-Ago2 associated mRNP. Both total RNA (Figure 3b, left panels) and Myc-Ago2 associated RNA (Figure 3b, right panels) were reverse transcribed and subjected to PCR amplification using oligonucleotides specific for HIV-1 TAR RNA (a structured motif associated with all HIV-1 mRNAs) or HIV-1 unspliced mRNA, Hdm2 mRNA or GAPDH mRNA. PCR analysis of total RNA showed that equal amounts of HIV-1, Hdm2 and GAPDH mRNAs were present in all samples (Figure 3b, left panels). HIV-1 mRNAs (both TAR and unspliced) were associated with Myc-Ago2, but not with Myc-Ago2PAZ9 mutant (Figure 3b, right panels). In agreement with the results shown in figure 2, Hdm2 mRNA was not detected in Myc-Ago2 mRNPs, suggesting that under these conditions Hdm2 is not regulated by RNAi. A similar experiment was performed to analyze the association of HIV-1 multispliced mRNA with Myc-Ago2 mRNPs. The RT-PCR reactions were performed in the presence of 32P-α ATP and were analyzed by autoradiography (Figure 3c). HIV-1 multispliced mRNAs associated with Myc-Ago2 (compare lane 3 to 2) and weakly with Myc-Ago2PAZ9 (compare lane 4 to lanes 3 and 2). Co-localization of HIV-1 mRNA and effectors of RNAi such as Ago2 and RCK/p54 within the P-bodies was also observed by immunofluorescence using HIV-1 containing MS2 binding sites and MS2-GFP constructs (Figure 4). Indeed, HIV-1 mRNAs visualized through their binding to MS2-GFP colocalized with endogenous RCK/p54 and ectopically expressed Myc-Ago2 (Figure 4). Our results show that HIV-1 mRNAs physically associate with Ago2, a central component of RISC, and co-localize with cellular proteins required for miRNA-mediated silencing such as RCK/p54 and Ago2 in P-bodies. We observed that all HIV-1 mRNA species associated with RISC. Accordingly, Huang et al. had identified 5 cellular miRNAs able to target the 3'UTR sequence present in all HIV-1 mRNAs [22]. Additionally, other cellular miRNAs able to target regions out side the 3'UTR may also participate [23].


Suppression of HIV-1 replication by microRNA effectors.

Chable-Bessia C, Meziane O, Latreille D, Triboulet R, Zamborlini A, Wagschal A, Jacquet JM, Reynes J, Levy Y, Saib A, Bennasser Y, Benkirane M - Retrovirology (2009)

HIV-1 mRNAs associate with Argonaute 2. 293 cells were transfected with HIV-1 molecular clone pNL4-3, Myc-Ago2 or Myc-AgoPAZ9 as indicated. 48 hours later cells were harvested and cytoplasmic extracts were prepared. Total RNA was purified from a fraction of harvested cells while the rest was subjected to immunoprecipitation using anti-Myc antibody. After washing, a fraction was used to analyze the amount of Myc-Ago2 and Myc-Ago2PAZ9 immunoprecipitated by Western blotting (a), and the rest of the Myc-IPs was used for RNA extraction. HIV-1 mRNAs (TAR and unspliced), Hdm2 and GAPDH mRNA were quantified from total RNA (b, left panel) or from Myc immunoprecipitated mRNPs (b, right panel) by RT-PCR using specific oligonucleotides. c) Experiment was performed as in fig 3 except that 293 cells were transfected with HIV-1 ΔPSP which contains a partial gag/pol deletion but retains all the mRNA splicing sites [66], and 32P-labelled nucleotides were used in the PCR reaction. PCR products were visualized by autoradiography.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2657893&req=5

Figure 3: HIV-1 mRNAs associate with Argonaute 2. 293 cells were transfected with HIV-1 molecular clone pNL4-3, Myc-Ago2 or Myc-AgoPAZ9 as indicated. 48 hours later cells were harvested and cytoplasmic extracts were prepared. Total RNA was purified from a fraction of harvested cells while the rest was subjected to immunoprecipitation using anti-Myc antibody. After washing, a fraction was used to analyze the amount of Myc-Ago2 and Myc-Ago2PAZ9 immunoprecipitated by Western blotting (a), and the rest of the Myc-IPs was used for RNA extraction. HIV-1 mRNAs (TAR and unspliced), Hdm2 and GAPDH mRNA were quantified from total RNA (b, left panel) or from Myc immunoprecipitated mRNPs (b, right panel) by RT-PCR using specific oligonucleotides. c) Experiment was performed as in fig 3 except that 293 cells were transfected with HIV-1 ΔPSP which contains a partial gag/pol deletion but retains all the mRNA splicing sites [66], and 32P-labelled nucleotides were used in the PCR reaction. PCR products were visualized by autoradiography.
Mentions: We next investigated the physical interaction between RNAi effectors and HIV-1 mRNA. 293 cells were mock transfected or transfected with combinations of pNL4-3, Myc-Ago2, a central component of the RISC complex, or its RNA-binding mutant Myc-Ago2PAZ9 constructs as indicated in figures 3 and 4. First, we verified that Myc-Ago2 and Myc-Ago2PAZ9 were equally expressed (Figure 3a). Second, cytoplasmic extracts were prepared, and a fraction was used for total RNA extraction while the rest was subjected to immunoprecipitation using anti-Myc antibody to purify Myc-Ago2 associated mRNP. Both total RNA (Figure 3b, left panels) and Myc-Ago2 associated RNA (Figure 3b, right panels) were reverse transcribed and subjected to PCR amplification using oligonucleotides specific for HIV-1 TAR RNA (a structured motif associated with all HIV-1 mRNAs) or HIV-1 unspliced mRNA, Hdm2 mRNA or GAPDH mRNA. PCR analysis of total RNA showed that equal amounts of HIV-1, Hdm2 and GAPDH mRNAs were present in all samples (Figure 3b, left panels). HIV-1 mRNAs (both TAR and unspliced) were associated with Myc-Ago2, but not with Myc-Ago2PAZ9 mutant (Figure 3b, right panels). In agreement with the results shown in figure 2, Hdm2 mRNA was not detected in Myc-Ago2 mRNPs, suggesting that under these conditions Hdm2 is not regulated by RNAi. A similar experiment was performed to analyze the association of HIV-1 multispliced mRNA with Myc-Ago2 mRNPs. The RT-PCR reactions were performed in the presence of 32P-α ATP and were analyzed by autoradiography (Figure 3c). HIV-1 multispliced mRNAs associated with Myc-Ago2 (compare lane 3 to 2) and weakly with Myc-Ago2PAZ9 (compare lane 4 to lanes 3 and 2). Co-localization of HIV-1 mRNA and effectors of RNAi such as Ago2 and RCK/p54 within the P-bodies was also observed by immunofluorescence using HIV-1 containing MS2 binding sites and MS2-GFP constructs (Figure 4). Indeed, HIV-1 mRNAs visualized through their binding to MS2-GFP colocalized with endogenous RCK/p54 and ectopically expressed Myc-Ago2 (Figure 4). Our results show that HIV-1 mRNAs physically associate with Ago2, a central component of RISC, and co-localize with cellular proteins required for miRNA-mediated silencing such as RCK/p54 and Ago2 in P-bodies. We observed that all HIV-1 mRNA species associated with RISC. Accordingly, Huang et al. had identified 5 cellular miRNAs able to target the 3'UTR sequence present in all HIV-1 mRNAs [22]. Additionally, other cellular miRNAs able to target regions out side the 3'UTR may also participate [23].

Bottom Line: In this study we explored the role of cellular factors required for miRNA-mediated mRNA translational inhibition in regulating HIV-1 gene expression.Here we show that HIV-1 mRNAs associate and co-localize with components of the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC), and we characterize some of the proteins required for miRNA-mediated silencing (miRNA effectors).RCK/p54, GW182, LSm-1 and XRN1 negatively regulate HIV-1 gene expression by preventing viral mRNA association with polysomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut de Génétique Humaine CNRS UPR1142, Laboratoire de Virologie Moléculaire, Montpellier, France. christine.chable-bessia@igh.cnrs.fr

ABSTRACT
The rate of HIV-1 gene expression is a key step that determines the kinetics of virus spread and AIDS progression. Viral entry and gene expression were described to be the key determinants for cell permissiveness to HIV. Recent reports highlighted the involvement of miRNA in regulating HIV-1 replication post-transcriptionally. In this study we explored the role of cellular factors required for miRNA-mediated mRNA translational inhibition in regulating HIV-1 gene expression. Here we show that HIV-1 mRNAs associate and co-localize with components of the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC), and we characterize some of the proteins required for miRNA-mediated silencing (miRNA effectors). RCK/p54, GW182, LSm-1 and XRN1 negatively regulate HIV-1 gene expression by preventing viral mRNA association with polysomes. Interestingly, knockdown of RCK/p54 or DGCR8 resulted in virus reactivation in PBMCs isolated from HIV infected patients treated with suppressive HAART.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus