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Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in frozen duck carcasses, Germany, 2007.

Harder TC, Teuffert J, Starick E, Gethmann J, Grund C, Fereidouni S, Durban M, Bogner KH, Neubauer-Juric A, Repper R, Hlinak A, Engelhardt A, Nöckler A, Smietanka K, Minta Z, Kramer M, Globig A, Mettenleiter TC, Conraths FJ, Beer M - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2009)

Bottom Line: We conducted phylogenetic and epidemiologic analyses to determine sources of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), subtype H5N1, in poultry holdings in 2007 in Germany, and a suspected incursion of HPAIV into the food chain through contaminated deep-frozen duck carcasses.Detection of HPAIV (H5N1) in frozen duck carcass samples of retained slaughter batches of 1 farm indicated that silent infection had occurred for some time before the incidental detection.Phylogenetic analysis established a direct epidemiologic link between HPAIV isolated from duck meat and strains isolated from 3 further outbreaks in December 2007 in backyard chickens that had access to uncooked offal from commercial deep-frozen duck carcasses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Isle of Riems, Germany.

ABSTRACT
We conducted phylogenetic and epidemiologic analyses to determine sources of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), subtype H5N1, in poultry holdings in 2007 in Germany, and a suspected incursion of HPAIV into the food chain through contaminated deep-frozen duck carcasses. In summer 2007, HPAIV (H5N1) outbreaks in 3 poultry holdings in Germany were temporally, spatially, and phylogenetically linked to outbreaks in wild aquatic birds. Detection of HPAIV (H5N1) in frozen duck carcass samples of retained slaughter batches of 1 farm indicated that silent infection had occurred for some time before the incidental detection. Phylogenetic analysis established a direct epidemiologic link between HPAIV isolated from duck meat and strains isolated from 3 further outbreaks in December 2007 in backyard chickens that had access to uncooked offal from commercial deep-frozen duck carcasses. Measures that will prevent such undetected introduction of HPAIV (H5N1) into the food chain are urgently required.

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Phylogetic tree of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene (full-length sequence) of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) (H5N1) detected in poultry from Brandenburg and Bavaria, Germany, in 2007, including sequences of wild birds and poultry from neighboring countries. Sequence of the Czech poultry isolate is supported by GenBank. The tree was constructed by using a minimal-evolution algorithm; numbers represent bootstrap values after 1,000 replications. A maximum-likelihood (ML)–based tree resulted in a similar topology; italicized numbers indicate bootstrap values of the ML tree after 200 replications. Scale bar indicates substitutions per site. The HA sequence of A/chicken/Czech Republic/11242–38/2007 (H5N1) was extracted from GenBank accession no. EU 443553. LPAIV, low pathogenicity avian influenza virus.
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Figure 2: Phylogetic tree of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene (full-length sequence) of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) (H5N1) detected in poultry from Brandenburg and Bavaria, Germany, in 2007, including sequences of wild birds and poultry from neighboring countries. Sequence of the Czech poultry isolate is supported by GenBank. The tree was constructed by using a minimal-evolution algorithm; numbers represent bootstrap values after 1,000 replications. A maximum-likelihood (ML)–based tree resulted in a similar topology; italicized numbers indicate bootstrap values of the ML tree after 200 replications. Scale bar indicates substitutions per site. The HA sequence of A/chicken/Czech Republic/11242–38/2007 (H5N1) was extracted from GenBank accession no. EU 443553. LPAIV, low pathogenicity avian influenza virus.

Mentions: Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length HA gene of these and other HPAIV (H5N1) viruses isolated in 2007 in Germany and neighboring countries is presented in Figure 2. All viruses belonged to cluster 2.2, group C. This lineage had not been detected during the 2006 outbreaks among wild birds in Germany and, therefore, most likely represents a new incursion in 2007 (7). Viruses from the Bavarian holding A clustered separately from those of the Bavarian holding B. Brandenburg viruses A–C clustered with the virus sequences from duck meat originating from Bavarian holding B (Figure 2).


Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in frozen duck carcasses, Germany, 2007.

Harder TC, Teuffert J, Starick E, Gethmann J, Grund C, Fereidouni S, Durban M, Bogner KH, Neubauer-Juric A, Repper R, Hlinak A, Engelhardt A, Nöckler A, Smietanka K, Minta Z, Kramer M, Globig A, Mettenleiter TC, Conraths FJ, Beer M - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2009)

Phylogetic tree of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene (full-length sequence) of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) (H5N1) detected in poultry from Brandenburg and Bavaria, Germany, in 2007, including sequences of wild birds and poultry from neighboring countries. Sequence of the Czech poultry isolate is supported by GenBank. The tree was constructed by using a minimal-evolution algorithm; numbers represent bootstrap values after 1,000 replications. A maximum-likelihood (ML)–based tree resulted in a similar topology; italicized numbers indicate bootstrap values of the ML tree after 200 replications. Scale bar indicates substitutions per site. The HA sequence of A/chicken/Czech Republic/11242–38/2007 (H5N1) was extracted from GenBank accession no. EU 443553. LPAIV, low pathogenicity avian influenza virus.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2657628&req=5

Figure 2: Phylogetic tree of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene (full-length sequence) of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) (H5N1) detected in poultry from Brandenburg and Bavaria, Germany, in 2007, including sequences of wild birds and poultry from neighboring countries. Sequence of the Czech poultry isolate is supported by GenBank. The tree was constructed by using a minimal-evolution algorithm; numbers represent bootstrap values after 1,000 replications. A maximum-likelihood (ML)–based tree resulted in a similar topology; italicized numbers indicate bootstrap values of the ML tree after 200 replications. Scale bar indicates substitutions per site. The HA sequence of A/chicken/Czech Republic/11242–38/2007 (H5N1) was extracted from GenBank accession no. EU 443553. LPAIV, low pathogenicity avian influenza virus.
Mentions: Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length HA gene of these and other HPAIV (H5N1) viruses isolated in 2007 in Germany and neighboring countries is presented in Figure 2. All viruses belonged to cluster 2.2, group C. This lineage had not been detected during the 2006 outbreaks among wild birds in Germany and, therefore, most likely represents a new incursion in 2007 (7). Viruses from the Bavarian holding A clustered separately from those of the Bavarian holding B. Brandenburg viruses A–C clustered with the virus sequences from duck meat originating from Bavarian holding B (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: We conducted phylogenetic and epidemiologic analyses to determine sources of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), subtype H5N1, in poultry holdings in 2007 in Germany, and a suspected incursion of HPAIV into the food chain through contaminated deep-frozen duck carcasses.Detection of HPAIV (H5N1) in frozen duck carcass samples of retained slaughter batches of 1 farm indicated that silent infection had occurred for some time before the incidental detection.Phylogenetic analysis established a direct epidemiologic link between HPAIV isolated from duck meat and strains isolated from 3 further outbreaks in December 2007 in backyard chickens that had access to uncooked offal from commercial deep-frozen duck carcasses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Isle of Riems, Germany.

ABSTRACT
We conducted phylogenetic and epidemiologic analyses to determine sources of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), subtype H5N1, in poultry holdings in 2007 in Germany, and a suspected incursion of HPAIV into the food chain through contaminated deep-frozen duck carcasses. In summer 2007, HPAIV (H5N1) outbreaks in 3 poultry holdings in Germany were temporally, spatially, and phylogenetically linked to outbreaks in wild aquatic birds. Detection of HPAIV (H5N1) in frozen duck carcass samples of retained slaughter batches of 1 farm indicated that silent infection had occurred for some time before the incidental detection. Phylogenetic analysis established a direct epidemiologic link between HPAIV isolated from duck meat and strains isolated from 3 further outbreaks in December 2007 in backyard chickens that had access to uncooked offal from commercial deep-frozen duck carcasses. Measures that will prevent such undetected introduction of HPAIV (H5N1) into the food chain are urgently required.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus