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Anxiolytic and anticonvulsant effects on mice of flavonoids, linalool, and alpha-tocopherol presents in the extract of leaves of Cissus sicyoides L. (Vitaceae).

de Almeida ER, Rafael KR, Couto GB, Ishigami AB - J. Biomed. Biotechnol. (2009)

Bottom Line: The board-hole test also showed a significant increase in the time spent in head-dipping and in marble-burying test of the number of marbles buried.The same treatment increased the duration of sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital and also showed a significant increase in protection against pentylenotetrazole-induced convulsions.These results indicate an anxiolytic and anticonvulsant-like action from C. sicyoides L. extract on mice, probably due to the action of flavonoid(s), Linalool, and alpha-tocopherol present in the C. sicyoides leaves.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Evaluation Laboratory of Psychobioactive and Toxicology, Department of Antibiotics, Federal University of Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE, Brazil. edvaldo.ra@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the anxiolytic and anticonvulsant effects of a hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the aerial parts of Cissus sicyoides L. (CS) (Vitaceae) on male and female mice using several behavioral assays. Groups of males and females treated via intraperitoneal (IP) with doses of 300, 600, and 1000 mg/kg of the extract showed significant action in the elevated plus-maze (EPM), time spent in the open arms, and number of entries in the open arms. The board-hole test also showed a significant increase in the time spent in head-dipping and in marble-burying test of the number of marbles buried. The same treatment increased the duration of sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital and also showed a significant increase in protection against pentylenotetrazole-induced convulsions. These results indicate an anxiolytic and anticonvulsant-like action from C. sicyoides L. extract on mice, probably due to the action of flavonoid(s), Linalool, and alpha-tocopherol present in the C. sicyoides leaves.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Linaloolmolecular structure present in Cissus sicyoides leaves, 2, 6-dimethylocta-2,7-dien-6-ol; 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig2: Linaloolmolecular structure present in Cissus sicyoides leaves, 2, 6-dimethylocta-2,7-dien-6-ol; 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol.

Mentions: Cissus sicyoides (CS) belonging to the Vitaceae familycomprises of about 165 genus and 1370 species, which are distributed throughoutthe tropics, mainly in Brazil and the Caribbean. It is popularly known as “insulinas, cipo-pucá,bejuco de porra, bejuco caro, puci, and anil trepador” [1]. Originally from the Dominican Republic[2], it is used in popular medicine as a diuretic, anti-inflammatory, andantidiabetic [3, 4]. It has also demonstrated a vasoconstrictor effect on guinea-pigaorta rings [5] and an antibacterial activity [6]. In Brazil, CS wasevaluated for its anticonvulsant property, where it is used against epilepsy andcytotoxic activities [7–9]. The fact thattreatment with tea induced an increase in the amount of chromosomal damage inbone marrow cells without altering the cell division cycle was alsodemonstrated. This plant also presents antibacterial and oxytocic activities [10],and CS contains significant amounts of α-tocoferol, a compound proved to be auseful adjunct to anticonvulsants in clinical medicine [11]. Alpha-tocopherol protects againstpentylenotetrazol and methylmalonate-induced convulsions [12] and preventsthe occurrence of epileptic foci in a rat model of posttraumatic epilepsy [13]. The central antinociceptive effect of C. sicyoides on mice as well as the action of dry leaves extract inpregnant rats and offspring postal development was also demonstrated. [14–16]. Phytochemistry studies identified and isolated from the aerial parts of CS a new coumarin glycoside5,6,7,8-tetrahydroxycoumarin-5β-xylopyranosidewhich was obtained together with known coumarin sabandin, two flavonoidskaempferol 3-rhamnoside and quercetin 3-rhamnoside, and two steroids,sitosterol and 3β-O-β-d-glucopyranosylsitosterol[17] (see Figure 1). Leaves of the genus Cissus contain sterols, quinones, and phenolic compounds. Anthocyanins, saponins, andflavonoids are also found in the plants leaves and fruits [3]. The effect oflinalool present in the leaves of the CS wasdemonstrated in the protection against seizures induced in mice [7, 8, 18] (see Figure 2). However, we found no reference on its activity on the central nervous system (CNS)relating to anxiety as well as information on its acute toxicity. Benzodiazepines (BDZs) are considered safe drugs and are widely prescribed fortheir anxiolytic and anticonvulsant actions [19–21]. However,they may produce side effects, such as sedation and myorelaxation that areconsidered as unwanted effects in an anxiolytic drugs [20]. On the other hand,the existence of natural flavonoids that possess anxiolytic effect notassociated with myorelaxant, amnesic, or sedative actions has been demonstrated[22]. Although alternativetreatments with herbs are increasingly used by the population to alleviateaffective disorders, there is a strong rejection among doctors as the use ofherbs for treatment of various diseases is still scarce [23]. The antidiabetic action of the CS is inthe making of clinical trials (phase II), the results obtained by the authorsare promising for the future use in medical clinics [24]. This study also aimsto assess the possible effects of flavonoids in the hydroalcoholic extract ofthe CS leaves in several behavioral tests related to anxiety in mice. Thepresence of α-Tocopherol has beenidentified in the leaves of C. sicyoides,used in clinical practice as an adjunct in the treatment of seizures [11] (see Figure 3). Our result indicates a new action for use of the C. sicyoides which can be related to thepresence of the α-tocopherol as an adjuvant of the effect of sedatives togetherwith the linalool and flavonoids present in this plant.


Anxiolytic and anticonvulsant effects on mice of flavonoids, linalool, and alpha-tocopherol presents in the extract of leaves of Cissus sicyoides L. (Vitaceae).

de Almeida ER, Rafael KR, Couto GB, Ishigami AB - J. Biomed. Biotechnol. (2009)

Linaloolmolecular structure present in Cissus sicyoides leaves, 2, 6-dimethylocta-2,7-dien-6-ol; 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2655362&req=5

fig2: Linaloolmolecular structure present in Cissus sicyoides leaves, 2, 6-dimethylocta-2,7-dien-6-ol; 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol.
Mentions: Cissus sicyoides (CS) belonging to the Vitaceae familycomprises of about 165 genus and 1370 species, which are distributed throughoutthe tropics, mainly in Brazil and the Caribbean. It is popularly known as “insulinas, cipo-pucá,bejuco de porra, bejuco caro, puci, and anil trepador” [1]. Originally from the Dominican Republic[2], it is used in popular medicine as a diuretic, anti-inflammatory, andantidiabetic [3, 4]. It has also demonstrated a vasoconstrictor effect on guinea-pigaorta rings [5] and an antibacterial activity [6]. In Brazil, CS wasevaluated for its anticonvulsant property, where it is used against epilepsy andcytotoxic activities [7–9]. The fact thattreatment with tea induced an increase in the amount of chromosomal damage inbone marrow cells without altering the cell division cycle was alsodemonstrated. This plant also presents antibacterial and oxytocic activities [10],and CS contains significant amounts of α-tocoferol, a compound proved to be auseful adjunct to anticonvulsants in clinical medicine [11]. Alpha-tocopherol protects againstpentylenotetrazol and methylmalonate-induced convulsions [12] and preventsthe occurrence of epileptic foci in a rat model of posttraumatic epilepsy [13]. The central antinociceptive effect of C. sicyoides on mice as well as the action of dry leaves extract inpregnant rats and offspring postal development was also demonstrated. [14–16]. Phytochemistry studies identified and isolated from the aerial parts of CS a new coumarin glycoside5,6,7,8-tetrahydroxycoumarin-5β-xylopyranosidewhich was obtained together with known coumarin sabandin, two flavonoidskaempferol 3-rhamnoside and quercetin 3-rhamnoside, and two steroids,sitosterol and 3β-O-β-d-glucopyranosylsitosterol[17] (see Figure 1). Leaves of the genus Cissus contain sterols, quinones, and phenolic compounds. Anthocyanins, saponins, andflavonoids are also found in the plants leaves and fruits [3]. The effect oflinalool present in the leaves of the CS wasdemonstrated in the protection against seizures induced in mice [7, 8, 18] (see Figure 2). However, we found no reference on its activity on the central nervous system (CNS)relating to anxiety as well as information on its acute toxicity. Benzodiazepines (BDZs) are considered safe drugs and are widely prescribed fortheir anxiolytic and anticonvulsant actions [19–21]. However,they may produce side effects, such as sedation and myorelaxation that areconsidered as unwanted effects in an anxiolytic drugs [20]. On the other hand,the existence of natural flavonoids that possess anxiolytic effect notassociated with myorelaxant, amnesic, or sedative actions has been demonstrated[22]. Although alternativetreatments with herbs are increasingly used by the population to alleviateaffective disorders, there is a strong rejection among doctors as the use ofherbs for treatment of various diseases is still scarce [23]. The antidiabetic action of the CS is inthe making of clinical trials (phase II), the results obtained by the authorsare promising for the future use in medical clinics [24]. This study also aimsto assess the possible effects of flavonoids in the hydroalcoholic extract ofthe CS leaves in several behavioral tests related to anxiety in mice. Thepresence of α-Tocopherol has beenidentified in the leaves of C. sicyoides,used in clinical practice as an adjunct in the treatment of seizures [11] (see Figure 3). Our result indicates a new action for use of the C. sicyoides which can be related to thepresence of the α-tocopherol as an adjuvant of the effect of sedatives togetherwith the linalool and flavonoids present in this plant.

Bottom Line: The board-hole test also showed a significant increase in the time spent in head-dipping and in marble-burying test of the number of marbles buried.The same treatment increased the duration of sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital and also showed a significant increase in protection against pentylenotetrazole-induced convulsions.These results indicate an anxiolytic and anticonvulsant-like action from C. sicyoides L. extract on mice, probably due to the action of flavonoid(s), Linalool, and alpha-tocopherol present in the C. sicyoides leaves.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Evaluation Laboratory of Psychobioactive and Toxicology, Department of Antibiotics, Federal University of Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE, Brazil. edvaldo.ra@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the anxiolytic and anticonvulsant effects of a hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the aerial parts of Cissus sicyoides L. (CS) (Vitaceae) on male and female mice using several behavioral assays. Groups of males and females treated via intraperitoneal (IP) with doses of 300, 600, and 1000 mg/kg of the extract showed significant action in the elevated plus-maze (EPM), time spent in the open arms, and number of entries in the open arms. The board-hole test also showed a significant increase in the time spent in head-dipping and in marble-burying test of the number of marbles buried. The same treatment increased the duration of sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital and also showed a significant increase in protection against pentylenotetrazole-induced convulsions. These results indicate an anxiolytic and anticonvulsant-like action from C. sicyoides L. extract on mice, probably due to the action of flavonoid(s), Linalool, and alpha-tocopherol present in the C. sicyoides leaves.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus