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Field-based evidence of fast and global increase of Plasmodium falciparum drug-resistance by DNA-microarrays and PCR/RFLP in Niger.

Ibrahim ML, Steenkeste N, Khim N, Adam HH, Konaté L, Coppée JY, Ariey F, Duchemin JB - Malar. J. (2009)

Bottom Line: Markers associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulphonamids were more frequently found in the short transmission zone than in the long transmission one.The pfATPase6S769N, candidate mutation of resistance to artemisinin was not found.However the pfATPsaeA623E mutation was found in 4.7% of samples.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre de Recherche Médicale et Sanitaire (CERMES), BP 10887 Niamey, Niger. lamine@cermes.org

ABSTRACT

Background: Over the last years, significant progress has been made in the comprehension of the molecular mechanism of malaria resistance to drugs. Together with in vivo tests, the molecular monitoring is now part of the survey strategy of the Plasmodium sensitivity. Currently, DNA-microarray analysis allows the simultaneous study of many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of Plasmodium isolates. In December 2005, the International Federation of the Red Cross distributed two million three hundred thousand long-lasting insecticide nets to pregnant women and mothers of under five years children in the whole Niger. Then, Niger adopted artemisinin-based combination therapy as first-line treatment.

Methods: Thirty four SNPs of pfcrt, pfdhfr, pfdhps, pfmdr and pfATPase were analysed by DNA-microarray and PCR/RFLP in two villages - Zindarou and Banizoumbou - with different durations of malaria transmission. The main objective of the study was to measure the dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum resistant strains and associated factors.

Results: This study shows a global and clear increase of the drug-resistance associated molecular markers frequencies during a relatively short-time period of four years. Markers associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulphonamids were more frequently found in the short transmission zone than in the long transmission one. The pfcrt76T mutation is significantly more present at Banizoumbou than Zindarou (38.3% vs 25.2%, p = 0.013). This work allowed the screening of several field strains for five SNPs of PfATPase6 gene. The pfATPase6S769N, candidate mutation of resistance to artemisinin was not found. However the pfATPsaeA623E mutation was found in 4.7% of samples.

Conclusion: A significant increase of several SNPs frequencies was highlighted over a four-year period. The polymorphism of five PfATPase6 gene SNPs was described. The global, large and fast increase of the molecular resistance is discussed in the context of current changes of health policy and malaria control in Niger.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Study sites. Map of Niger with the larger insert for the study zone showing the relative situation of villages to the Capital, Niamey. Scale bars for the Niger map.
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Figure 1: Study sites. Map of Niger with the larger insert for the study zone showing the relative situation of villages to the Capital, Niamey. Scale bars for the Niger map.

Mentions: Zindarou (13°26.09 N/2°55.23 E) and Banizoumbou (13°32.03 N/2°39.66 E) are two villages of comparable size (respectively 500 and 1,000 inhabitants), 70 km far from Niamey and 20 km distant from each other (Figure 1). If the rainfall is considered to be equivalent, the land use and topographies of the two villages determine different length and intensities of malaria transmission. The malaria transmission is short (three months) and strictly linked to rainy season in Banizoumbou, while it goes beyond five to six months in Zindarou with presence of Anopheles funestus [21], in addition to Anopheles gambiae sl.


Field-based evidence of fast and global increase of Plasmodium falciparum drug-resistance by DNA-microarrays and PCR/RFLP in Niger.

Ibrahim ML, Steenkeste N, Khim N, Adam HH, Konaté L, Coppée JY, Ariey F, Duchemin JB - Malar. J. (2009)

Study sites. Map of Niger with the larger insert for the study zone showing the relative situation of villages to the Capital, Niamey. Scale bars for the Niger map.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2654903&req=5

Figure 1: Study sites. Map of Niger with the larger insert for the study zone showing the relative situation of villages to the Capital, Niamey. Scale bars for the Niger map.
Mentions: Zindarou (13°26.09 N/2°55.23 E) and Banizoumbou (13°32.03 N/2°39.66 E) are two villages of comparable size (respectively 500 and 1,000 inhabitants), 70 km far from Niamey and 20 km distant from each other (Figure 1). If the rainfall is considered to be equivalent, the land use and topographies of the two villages determine different length and intensities of malaria transmission. The malaria transmission is short (three months) and strictly linked to rainy season in Banizoumbou, while it goes beyond five to six months in Zindarou with presence of Anopheles funestus [21], in addition to Anopheles gambiae sl.

Bottom Line: Markers associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulphonamids were more frequently found in the short transmission zone than in the long transmission one.The pfATPase6S769N, candidate mutation of resistance to artemisinin was not found.However the pfATPsaeA623E mutation was found in 4.7% of samples.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre de Recherche Médicale et Sanitaire (CERMES), BP 10887 Niamey, Niger. lamine@cermes.org

ABSTRACT

Background: Over the last years, significant progress has been made in the comprehension of the molecular mechanism of malaria resistance to drugs. Together with in vivo tests, the molecular monitoring is now part of the survey strategy of the Plasmodium sensitivity. Currently, DNA-microarray analysis allows the simultaneous study of many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of Plasmodium isolates. In December 2005, the International Federation of the Red Cross distributed two million three hundred thousand long-lasting insecticide nets to pregnant women and mothers of under five years children in the whole Niger. Then, Niger adopted artemisinin-based combination therapy as first-line treatment.

Methods: Thirty four SNPs of pfcrt, pfdhfr, pfdhps, pfmdr and pfATPase were analysed by DNA-microarray and PCR/RFLP in two villages - Zindarou and Banizoumbou - with different durations of malaria transmission. The main objective of the study was to measure the dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum resistant strains and associated factors.

Results: This study shows a global and clear increase of the drug-resistance associated molecular markers frequencies during a relatively short-time period of four years. Markers associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulphonamids were more frequently found in the short transmission zone than in the long transmission one. The pfcrt76T mutation is significantly more present at Banizoumbou than Zindarou (38.3% vs 25.2%, p = 0.013). This work allowed the screening of several field strains for five SNPs of PfATPase6 gene. The pfATPase6S769N, candidate mutation of resistance to artemisinin was not found. However the pfATPsaeA623E mutation was found in 4.7% of samples.

Conclusion: A significant increase of several SNPs frequencies was highlighted over a four-year period. The polymorphism of five PfATPase6 gene SNPs was described. The global, large and fast increase of the molecular resistance is discussed in the context of current changes of health policy and malaria control in Niger.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus