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Programmed cell death in host-symbiont associations, viewed through the Gene Ontology.

Chibucos MC, Collmer CW, Torto-Alalibo T, Gwinn-Giglio M, Lindeberg M, Li D, Tyler BM - BMC Microbiol. (2009)

Bottom Line: Thus, diverse biotrophic pathogens have evolved many mechanisms to suppress programmed cell death, and mutualistic and commensal microbes may employ similar mechanisms.Necrotrophic pathogens derive their nutrition from dead tissue, and many produce toxins specifically to trigger programmed cell death in their hosts.This mini-review will summarize the mechanisms that have evolved in diverse microbes and hosts for controlling PCD and the Gene Ontology terms developed by the Plant-Associated Microbe Gene Ontology (PAMGO) Consortium for describing those mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. mchibucos@som.umaryland.edu

ABSTRACT
Manipulation of programmed cell death (PCD) is central to many host microbe interactions. Both plant and animal cells use PCD as a powerful weapon against biotrophic pathogens, including viruses, which draw their nutrition from living tissue. Thus, diverse biotrophic pathogens have evolved many mechanisms to suppress programmed cell death, and mutualistic and commensal microbes may employ similar mechanisms. Necrotrophic pathogens derive their nutrition from dead tissue, and many produce toxins specifically to trigger programmed cell death in their hosts. Hemibiotrophic pathogens manipulate PCD in a most exquisite way, suppressing PCD during the biotrophic phase and stimulating it during the necrotrophic phase. This mini-review will summarize the mechanisms that have evolved in diverse microbes and hosts for controlling PCD and the Gene Ontology terms developed by the Plant-Associated Microbe Gene Ontology (PAMGO) Consortium for describing those mechanisms.

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Selected GO terms related to "GO: 0052040 modulation by symbiont of host programmed cell death". A greatly simplified directed acyclic graph (DAG) showing key low-level terms describing modulation of programmed cell death in one organism (the host) by another organism (the symbiont) is depicted. A simplified lineage for these terms is shown up to "GO: 0008150 biological_process". Only selected terms are shown, and only a few of the parent-child relationships are depicted; arrows symbolize GO "is_a" and "part_of" relationships (for more information on ontology structure, i.e. "is_a", "part_of", and "regulates", see [13]). Note that "GO: 0052040 modulation by symbiont of host programmed cell death" (denoted by a dark star) and "GO: 0052031 modulation by symbiont of host defense response" (light star) both ultimately exist under the "GO: 0051704 multi-organism process" node. The GO terms shaded with grey represent annotations discussed in the text; GO terms highlighted with broken lines or black serve as reference points for Additional file 1 and Additional file 2, respectively.
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Figure 2: Selected GO terms related to "GO: 0052040 modulation by symbiont of host programmed cell death". A greatly simplified directed acyclic graph (DAG) showing key low-level terms describing modulation of programmed cell death in one organism (the host) by another organism (the symbiont) is depicted. A simplified lineage for these terms is shown up to "GO: 0008150 biological_process". Only selected terms are shown, and only a few of the parent-child relationships are depicted; arrows symbolize GO "is_a" and "part_of" relationships (for more information on ontology structure, i.e. "is_a", "part_of", and "regulates", see [13]). Note that "GO: 0052040 modulation by symbiont of host programmed cell death" (denoted by a dark star) and "GO: 0052031 modulation by symbiont of host defense response" (light star) both ultimately exist under the "GO: 0051704 multi-organism process" node. The GO terms shaded with grey represent annotations discussed in the text; GO terms highlighted with broken lines or black serve as reference points for Additional file 1 and Additional file 2, respectively.

Mentions: Additional file 2 further illustrates these concepts by showing GO term information for "GO: 0052248 modulation of programmed cell death in other organism during symbiotic interaction" and its child terms. Unlike the terms shown in Additional file 1, which reflect purely endogenous processes within a single organism, the terms included here are appropriate to use in describing genes in one organism whose products modulate programmed cell death in another organism, thus appropriately emphasizing the symbiotic interaction between different organisms. Indeed, these terms ultimately fall within the "GO: 0051704 multi-organism process" node of the GO biological process ontology (Figure 2; [1]), underscoring the notion of interaction between organisms.


Programmed cell death in host-symbiont associations, viewed through the Gene Ontology.

Chibucos MC, Collmer CW, Torto-Alalibo T, Gwinn-Giglio M, Lindeberg M, Li D, Tyler BM - BMC Microbiol. (2009)

Selected GO terms related to "GO: 0052040 modulation by symbiont of host programmed cell death". A greatly simplified directed acyclic graph (DAG) showing key low-level terms describing modulation of programmed cell death in one organism (the host) by another organism (the symbiont) is depicted. A simplified lineage for these terms is shown up to "GO: 0008150 biological_process". Only selected terms are shown, and only a few of the parent-child relationships are depicted; arrows symbolize GO "is_a" and "part_of" relationships (for more information on ontology structure, i.e. "is_a", "part_of", and "regulates", see [13]). Note that "GO: 0052040 modulation by symbiont of host programmed cell death" (denoted by a dark star) and "GO: 0052031 modulation by symbiont of host defense response" (light star) both ultimately exist under the "GO: 0051704 multi-organism process" node. The GO terms shaded with grey represent annotations discussed in the text; GO terms highlighted with broken lines or black serve as reference points for Additional file 1 and Additional file 2, respectively.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2654665&req=5

Figure 2: Selected GO terms related to "GO: 0052040 modulation by symbiont of host programmed cell death". A greatly simplified directed acyclic graph (DAG) showing key low-level terms describing modulation of programmed cell death in one organism (the host) by another organism (the symbiont) is depicted. A simplified lineage for these terms is shown up to "GO: 0008150 biological_process". Only selected terms are shown, and only a few of the parent-child relationships are depicted; arrows symbolize GO "is_a" and "part_of" relationships (for more information on ontology structure, i.e. "is_a", "part_of", and "regulates", see [13]). Note that "GO: 0052040 modulation by symbiont of host programmed cell death" (denoted by a dark star) and "GO: 0052031 modulation by symbiont of host defense response" (light star) both ultimately exist under the "GO: 0051704 multi-organism process" node. The GO terms shaded with grey represent annotations discussed in the text; GO terms highlighted with broken lines or black serve as reference points for Additional file 1 and Additional file 2, respectively.
Mentions: Additional file 2 further illustrates these concepts by showing GO term information for "GO: 0052248 modulation of programmed cell death in other organism during symbiotic interaction" and its child terms. Unlike the terms shown in Additional file 1, which reflect purely endogenous processes within a single organism, the terms included here are appropriate to use in describing genes in one organism whose products modulate programmed cell death in another organism, thus appropriately emphasizing the symbiotic interaction between different organisms. Indeed, these terms ultimately fall within the "GO: 0051704 multi-organism process" node of the GO biological process ontology (Figure 2; [1]), underscoring the notion of interaction between organisms.

Bottom Line: Thus, diverse biotrophic pathogens have evolved many mechanisms to suppress programmed cell death, and mutualistic and commensal microbes may employ similar mechanisms.Necrotrophic pathogens derive their nutrition from dead tissue, and many produce toxins specifically to trigger programmed cell death in their hosts.This mini-review will summarize the mechanisms that have evolved in diverse microbes and hosts for controlling PCD and the Gene Ontology terms developed by the Plant-Associated Microbe Gene Ontology (PAMGO) Consortium for describing those mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. mchibucos@som.umaryland.edu

ABSTRACT
Manipulation of programmed cell death (PCD) is central to many host microbe interactions. Both plant and animal cells use PCD as a powerful weapon against biotrophic pathogens, including viruses, which draw their nutrition from living tissue. Thus, diverse biotrophic pathogens have evolved many mechanisms to suppress programmed cell death, and mutualistic and commensal microbes may employ similar mechanisms. Necrotrophic pathogens derive their nutrition from dead tissue, and many produce toxins specifically to trigger programmed cell death in their hosts. Hemibiotrophic pathogens manipulate PCD in a most exquisite way, suppressing PCD during the biotrophic phase and stimulating it during the necrotrophic phase. This mini-review will summarize the mechanisms that have evolved in diverse microbes and hosts for controlling PCD and the Gene Ontology terms developed by the Plant-Associated Microbe Gene Ontology (PAMGO) Consortium for describing those mechanisms.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus