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Programmed cell death in host-symbiont associations, viewed through the Gene Ontology.

Chibucos MC, Collmer CW, Torto-Alalibo T, Gwinn-Giglio M, Lindeberg M, Li D, Tyler BM - BMC Microbiol. (2009)

Bottom Line: Thus, diverse biotrophic pathogens have evolved many mechanisms to suppress programmed cell death, and mutualistic and commensal microbes may employ similar mechanisms.Necrotrophic pathogens derive their nutrition from dead tissue, and many produce toxins specifically to trigger programmed cell death in their hosts.This mini-review will summarize the mechanisms that have evolved in diverse microbes and hosts for controlling PCD and the Gene Ontology terms developed by the Plant-Associated Microbe Gene Ontology (PAMGO) Consortium for describing those mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. mchibucos@som.umaryland.edu

ABSTRACT
Manipulation of programmed cell death (PCD) is central to many host microbe interactions. Both plant and animal cells use PCD as a powerful weapon against biotrophic pathogens, including viruses, which draw their nutrition from living tissue. Thus, diverse biotrophic pathogens have evolved many mechanisms to suppress programmed cell death, and mutualistic and commensal microbes may employ similar mechanisms. Necrotrophic pathogens derive their nutrition from dead tissue, and many produce toxins specifically to trigger programmed cell death in their hosts. Hemibiotrophic pathogens manipulate PCD in a most exquisite way, suppressing PCD during the biotrophic phase and stimulating it during the necrotrophic phase. This mini-review will summarize the mechanisms that have evolved in diverse microbes and hosts for controlling PCD and the Gene Ontology terms developed by the Plant-Associated Microbe Gene Ontology (PAMGO) Consortium for describing those mechanisms.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

"GO: 0012501 programmed cell death" and its child terms depicted in a screenshot of the Gene Ontology AmiGO browser [1]. Most terms shown here below "GO: 0012501 programmed cell death" are types of programmed cell death, symbolized by the logo showing an "I" inside a square, which denotes the "is_a" relationship. However, three terms (various logos with "R") describe the "regulates" type of relationship. For more information on ontology structure, including term-term relationships, see [13].
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Figure 1: "GO: 0012501 programmed cell death" and its child terms depicted in a screenshot of the Gene Ontology AmiGO browser [1]. Most terms shown here below "GO: 0012501 programmed cell death" are types of programmed cell death, symbolized by the logo showing an "I" inside a square, which denotes the "is_a" relationship. However, three terms (various logos with "R") describe the "regulates" type of relationship. For more information on ontology structure, including term-term relationships, see [13].

Mentions: Some of the major classes of PCD, as defined by the biological process ontology of GO, include "GO: 0006915 apoptosis" (sometimes called type I PCD), "GO: 0016244 non-apoptotic programmed cell death" (sometimes called type II PCD), "GO: 0048102 autophagic cell death", "GO: 0010623 developmental programmed cell death", and "GO: 0034050 host programmed cell death induced by symbiont"; "GO: 0009626 plant-type hypersensitive response" is a child term of "GO: 0034050 host programmed cell death induced by symbiont". In addition to these types of PCD, the GO differentiates two others (siblings of those above): "GO: 0010421 hydrogen peroxide-mediated programmed cell death" and "GO: 0010343 singlet oxygen-mediated programmed cell death" [1]. Figure 1 shows a screenshot of the AmiGO ontology browser at the Gene Ontology depicting "GO: 0012501 programmed cell death" and its child terms [1]. In addition to the terms describing classes of PCD, the GO contains three other terms, also shown in Figure 1, that describe types of PCD regulation: "GO: 0043067 regulation of programmed cell death", "GO: 0043069 negative regulation of programmed cell death", and "GO: 0043068 positive regulation of programmed cell death". Taken together, these terms describing both classes of PCD and regulation of PCD allow for annotations that capture various aspects of PCD as a biological process.


Programmed cell death in host-symbiont associations, viewed through the Gene Ontology.

Chibucos MC, Collmer CW, Torto-Alalibo T, Gwinn-Giglio M, Lindeberg M, Li D, Tyler BM - BMC Microbiol. (2009)

"GO: 0012501 programmed cell death" and its child terms depicted in a screenshot of the Gene Ontology AmiGO browser [1]. Most terms shown here below "GO: 0012501 programmed cell death" are types of programmed cell death, symbolized by the logo showing an "I" inside a square, which denotes the "is_a" relationship. However, three terms (various logos with "R") describe the "regulates" type of relationship. For more information on ontology structure, including term-term relationships, see [13].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2654665&req=5

Figure 1: "GO: 0012501 programmed cell death" and its child terms depicted in a screenshot of the Gene Ontology AmiGO browser [1]. Most terms shown here below "GO: 0012501 programmed cell death" are types of programmed cell death, symbolized by the logo showing an "I" inside a square, which denotes the "is_a" relationship. However, three terms (various logos with "R") describe the "regulates" type of relationship. For more information on ontology structure, including term-term relationships, see [13].
Mentions: Some of the major classes of PCD, as defined by the biological process ontology of GO, include "GO: 0006915 apoptosis" (sometimes called type I PCD), "GO: 0016244 non-apoptotic programmed cell death" (sometimes called type II PCD), "GO: 0048102 autophagic cell death", "GO: 0010623 developmental programmed cell death", and "GO: 0034050 host programmed cell death induced by symbiont"; "GO: 0009626 plant-type hypersensitive response" is a child term of "GO: 0034050 host programmed cell death induced by symbiont". In addition to these types of PCD, the GO differentiates two others (siblings of those above): "GO: 0010421 hydrogen peroxide-mediated programmed cell death" and "GO: 0010343 singlet oxygen-mediated programmed cell death" [1]. Figure 1 shows a screenshot of the AmiGO ontology browser at the Gene Ontology depicting "GO: 0012501 programmed cell death" and its child terms [1]. In addition to the terms describing classes of PCD, the GO contains three other terms, also shown in Figure 1, that describe types of PCD regulation: "GO: 0043067 regulation of programmed cell death", "GO: 0043069 negative regulation of programmed cell death", and "GO: 0043068 positive regulation of programmed cell death". Taken together, these terms describing both classes of PCD and regulation of PCD allow for annotations that capture various aspects of PCD as a biological process.

Bottom Line: Thus, diverse biotrophic pathogens have evolved many mechanisms to suppress programmed cell death, and mutualistic and commensal microbes may employ similar mechanisms.Necrotrophic pathogens derive their nutrition from dead tissue, and many produce toxins specifically to trigger programmed cell death in their hosts.This mini-review will summarize the mechanisms that have evolved in diverse microbes and hosts for controlling PCD and the Gene Ontology terms developed by the Plant-Associated Microbe Gene Ontology (PAMGO) Consortium for describing those mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. mchibucos@som.umaryland.edu

ABSTRACT
Manipulation of programmed cell death (PCD) is central to many host microbe interactions. Both plant and animal cells use PCD as a powerful weapon against biotrophic pathogens, including viruses, which draw their nutrition from living tissue. Thus, diverse biotrophic pathogens have evolved many mechanisms to suppress programmed cell death, and mutualistic and commensal microbes may employ similar mechanisms. Necrotrophic pathogens derive their nutrition from dead tissue, and many produce toxins specifically to trigger programmed cell death in their hosts. Hemibiotrophic pathogens manipulate PCD in a most exquisite way, suppressing PCD during the biotrophic phase and stimulating it during the necrotrophic phase. This mini-review will summarize the mechanisms that have evolved in diverse microbes and hosts for controlling PCD and the Gene Ontology terms developed by the Plant-Associated Microbe Gene Ontology (PAMGO) Consortium for describing those mechanisms.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus