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Protein secretion systems in bacterial-host associations, and their description in the Gene Ontology.

Tseng TT, Tyler BM, Setubal JC - BMC Microbiol. (2009)

Bottom Line: A number of secreted proteins are destined to enter the host cell (effectors and toxins), and thus several secretion systems include apparatus to translocate proteins across the plasma membrane of the host also.The Plant-Associated Microbe Gene Ontology (PAMGO) Consortium has been developing standardized terms for describing biological processes and cellular components that play important roles in the interactions of microbes with plant and animal hosts, including the processes of bacterial secretion.Here we survey bacterial secretion systems known to modulate interactions with host organisms and describe Gene Ontology terms useful for describing the components and functions of these systems, and for capturing the similarities among the diverse systems.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. tsaitien@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Protein secretion plays a central role in modulating the interactions of bacteria with their environments. This is particularly the case when symbiotic bacteria (whether pathogenic, commensal or mutualistic) are interacting with larger host organisms. In the case of Gram-negative bacteria, secretion requires translocation across the outer as well as the inner membrane, and a diversity of molecular machines have been elaborated for this purpose. A number of secreted proteins are destined to enter the host cell (effectors and toxins), and thus several secretion systems include apparatus to translocate proteins across the plasma membrane of the host also. The Plant-Associated Microbe Gene Ontology (PAMGO) Consortium has been developing standardized terms for describing biological processes and cellular components that play important roles in the interactions of microbes with plant and animal hosts, including the processes of bacterial secretion. Here we survey bacterial secretion systems known to modulate interactions with host organisms and describe Gene Ontology terms useful for describing the components and functions of these systems, and for capturing the similarities among the diverse systems.

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Summary of known bacterial secretion systems. In this simplified view only the basics of each secretion system are sketched. HM: Host membrane; OM: outer membrane; IM: inner membrane; MM: mycomembrane; OMP: outer membrane protein; MFP: membrane fusion protein. ATPases and chaperones are shown in yellow.
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Figure 1: Summary of known bacterial secretion systems. In this simplified view only the basics of each secretion system are sketched. HM: Host membrane; OM: outer membrane; IM: inner membrane; MM: mycomembrane; OMP: outer membrane protein; MFP: membrane fusion protein. ATPases and chaperones are shown in yellow.

Mentions: Figure 1 summarizes the main features of the known secretion systems. In Gram-negative bacteria, some secreted proteins are exported across the inner and outer membranes in a single step via the type I, type III, Type IV or type VI pathways. Other proteins are first exported into the periplasmic space via the universal Sec or two-arginine (Tat) pathways and then translocated across the outer membrane via the type II, type V or less commonly, the type I or type IV machinery. In Gram-positive bacteria, secreted proteins are commonly translocated across the single membrane by the Sec pathway or the two-arginine (Tat) pathway. However, in Gram-positive bacteria such as mycobacteria that have a hydrophobic, nearly impermeable cell wall, called the mycomembrane, a specialized type VII secretion system translocates proteins across both the membrane and the cell wall via a (still poorly-defined) channel, but it is not known yet if this is a one-step or two-step process.


Protein secretion systems in bacterial-host associations, and their description in the Gene Ontology.

Tseng TT, Tyler BM, Setubal JC - BMC Microbiol. (2009)

Summary of known bacterial secretion systems. In this simplified view only the basics of each secretion system are sketched. HM: Host membrane; OM: outer membrane; IM: inner membrane; MM: mycomembrane; OMP: outer membrane protein; MFP: membrane fusion protein. ATPases and chaperones are shown in yellow.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2654662&req=5

Figure 1: Summary of known bacterial secretion systems. In this simplified view only the basics of each secretion system are sketched. HM: Host membrane; OM: outer membrane; IM: inner membrane; MM: mycomembrane; OMP: outer membrane protein; MFP: membrane fusion protein. ATPases and chaperones are shown in yellow.
Mentions: Figure 1 summarizes the main features of the known secretion systems. In Gram-negative bacteria, some secreted proteins are exported across the inner and outer membranes in a single step via the type I, type III, Type IV or type VI pathways. Other proteins are first exported into the periplasmic space via the universal Sec or two-arginine (Tat) pathways and then translocated across the outer membrane via the type II, type V or less commonly, the type I or type IV machinery. In Gram-positive bacteria, secreted proteins are commonly translocated across the single membrane by the Sec pathway or the two-arginine (Tat) pathway. However, in Gram-positive bacteria such as mycobacteria that have a hydrophobic, nearly impermeable cell wall, called the mycomembrane, a specialized type VII secretion system translocates proteins across both the membrane and the cell wall via a (still poorly-defined) channel, but it is not known yet if this is a one-step or two-step process.

Bottom Line: A number of secreted proteins are destined to enter the host cell (effectors and toxins), and thus several secretion systems include apparatus to translocate proteins across the plasma membrane of the host also.The Plant-Associated Microbe Gene Ontology (PAMGO) Consortium has been developing standardized terms for describing biological processes and cellular components that play important roles in the interactions of microbes with plant and animal hosts, including the processes of bacterial secretion.Here we survey bacterial secretion systems known to modulate interactions with host organisms and describe Gene Ontology terms useful for describing the components and functions of these systems, and for capturing the similarities among the diverse systems.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. tsaitien@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Protein secretion plays a central role in modulating the interactions of bacteria with their environments. This is particularly the case when symbiotic bacteria (whether pathogenic, commensal or mutualistic) are interacting with larger host organisms. In the case of Gram-negative bacteria, secretion requires translocation across the outer as well as the inner membrane, and a diversity of molecular machines have been elaborated for this purpose. A number of secreted proteins are destined to enter the host cell (effectors and toxins), and thus several secretion systems include apparatus to translocate proteins across the plasma membrane of the host also. The Plant-Associated Microbe Gene Ontology (PAMGO) Consortium has been developing standardized terms for describing biological processes and cellular components that play important roles in the interactions of microbes with plant and animal hosts, including the processes of bacterial secretion. Here we survey bacterial secretion systems known to modulate interactions with host organisms and describe Gene Ontology terms useful for describing the components and functions of these systems, and for capturing the similarities among the diverse systems.

Show MeSH