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Orodental phenotype and genotype findings in all subtypes of hypophosphatasia.

Reibel A, Manière MC, Clauss F, Droz D, Alembik Y, Mornet E, Bloch-Zupan A - Orphanet J Rare Dis (2009)

Bottom Line: According to the severity of the disorder, some dental defects were infrequent, while other were always present.The long term prognosis of the permanent teeth varies from a patient to another.As premature loss of primary teeth is often the first, and sometimes the only visible symptom of the milder forms, the paediatric dentist plays a critical role in the detection and diagnosis of the disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Strasbourg, France. ame.reibel@wanadoo.fr

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypophosphatasia (HP) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by a wide spectrum of defects in mineralized tissues and caused by deficiency in the tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase gene (ALPL). The symptoms are highly variable in their clinical expression, and relate to numerous mutations in this gene. The first clinical sign of the disease is often a premature loss of deciduous teeth, mostly in the moderate forms.

Aim: The purpose of this study was to document the oral features of HP patients and to relate theses features to the six recognized forms of HP in 5 patients with known genotype and to investigate the genotype-phenotype correlations.

Methods: Clinical and radiographic examinations were carried out. We collected medical and dental history in the kindred and biochemical data. Finally, mutations in the ALPL gene were tested by DNA sequencing in SESEP laboratory.

Results: We have for the first time related the known dental anomalies which occur as integral features of HP to the recognized clinical forms of HP. We also pointed out striking dental abnormalities which were never described in association with this rare disease. Accurate genotype-phenotype severity correlations were observed.

Conclusion: This work allowed us to compare orodental manifestations in all the clinical forms of HP within the patient's sample. According to the severity of the disorder, some dental defects were infrequent, while other were always present. The long term prognosis of the permanent teeth varies from a patient to another. As premature loss of primary teeth is often the first, and sometimes the only visible symptom of the milder forms, the paediatric dentist plays a critical role in the detection and diagnosis of the disease.

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Patient 1: Panoramic radiograph at 12 years of age. The radiograph shows enlarged pulp chambers and abnormality of the shape of crown form. The second molars present more severe taurodontism than the first molars.
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Figure 5: Patient 1: Panoramic radiograph at 12 years of age. The radiograph shows enlarged pulp chambers and abnormality of the shape of crown form. The second molars present more severe taurodontism than the first molars.

Mentions: • Shape: abnormalities of the crown form of teeth were observed for the two infantile forms of HP. The crowns appeared small and bulbous, covered by thin enamel that did not appear to reach the cervical area. Cervical constriction was also present (Figure. 4, 5). Abnormalities of the shape of the roots and coronal pulp are a common features in all forms of HP. Primary teeth in all the patients presented enlarged pulp chambers and root canals with thin dentinal walls, visible both in anterior and posterior teeth (Figure. 4, 5, 6). This was considered to be true enlargement of the pulp chamber and not taurodontism as there was no apical displacement of the furcation in the molars, (the exception being in the case of patient 1 in whom the second permanent molars presented true taurodontism) (Figure. 5).


Orodental phenotype and genotype findings in all subtypes of hypophosphatasia.

Reibel A, Manière MC, Clauss F, Droz D, Alembik Y, Mornet E, Bloch-Zupan A - Orphanet J Rare Dis (2009)

Patient 1: Panoramic radiograph at 12 years of age. The radiograph shows enlarged pulp chambers and abnormality of the shape of crown form. The second molars present more severe taurodontism than the first molars.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2654544&req=5

Figure 5: Patient 1: Panoramic radiograph at 12 years of age. The radiograph shows enlarged pulp chambers and abnormality of the shape of crown form. The second molars present more severe taurodontism than the first molars.
Mentions: • Shape: abnormalities of the crown form of teeth were observed for the two infantile forms of HP. The crowns appeared small and bulbous, covered by thin enamel that did not appear to reach the cervical area. Cervical constriction was also present (Figure. 4, 5). Abnormalities of the shape of the roots and coronal pulp are a common features in all forms of HP. Primary teeth in all the patients presented enlarged pulp chambers and root canals with thin dentinal walls, visible both in anterior and posterior teeth (Figure. 4, 5, 6). This was considered to be true enlargement of the pulp chamber and not taurodontism as there was no apical displacement of the furcation in the molars, (the exception being in the case of patient 1 in whom the second permanent molars presented true taurodontism) (Figure. 5).

Bottom Line: According to the severity of the disorder, some dental defects were infrequent, while other were always present.The long term prognosis of the permanent teeth varies from a patient to another.As premature loss of primary teeth is often the first, and sometimes the only visible symptom of the milder forms, the paediatric dentist plays a critical role in the detection and diagnosis of the disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Strasbourg, France. ame.reibel@wanadoo.fr

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypophosphatasia (HP) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by a wide spectrum of defects in mineralized tissues and caused by deficiency in the tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase gene (ALPL). The symptoms are highly variable in their clinical expression, and relate to numerous mutations in this gene. The first clinical sign of the disease is often a premature loss of deciduous teeth, mostly in the moderate forms.

Aim: The purpose of this study was to document the oral features of HP patients and to relate theses features to the six recognized forms of HP in 5 patients with known genotype and to investigate the genotype-phenotype correlations.

Methods: Clinical and radiographic examinations were carried out. We collected medical and dental history in the kindred and biochemical data. Finally, mutations in the ALPL gene were tested by DNA sequencing in SESEP laboratory.

Results: We have for the first time related the known dental anomalies which occur as integral features of HP to the recognized clinical forms of HP. We also pointed out striking dental abnormalities which were never described in association with this rare disease. Accurate genotype-phenotype severity correlations were observed.

Conclusion: This work allowed us to compare orodental manifestations in all the clinical forms of HP within the patient's sample. According to the severity of the disorder, some dental defects were infrequent, while other were always present. The long term prognosis of the permanent teeth varies from a patient to another. As premature loss of primary teeth is often the first, and sometimes the only visible symptom of the milder forms, the paediatric dentist plays a critical role in the detection and diagnosis of the disease.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus