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Orodental phenotype and genotype findings in all subtypes of hypophosphatasia.

Reibel A, Manière MC, Clauss F, Droz D, Alembik Y, Mornet E, Bloch-Zupan A - Orphanet J Rare Dis (2009)

Bottom Line: According to the severity of the disorder, some dental defects were infrequent, while other were always present.The long term prognosis of the permanent teeth varies from a patient to another.As premature loss of primary teeth is often the first, and sometimes the only visible symptom of the milder forms, the paediatric dentist plays a critical role in the detection and diagnosis of the disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Strasbourg, France. ame.reibel@wanadoo.fr

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypophosphatasia (HP) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by a wide spectrum of defects in mineralized tissues and caused by deficiency in the tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase gene (ALPL). The symptoms are highly variable in their clinical expression, and relate to numerous mutations in this gene. The first clinical sign of the disease is often a premature loss of deciduous teeth, mostly in the moderate forms.

Aim: The purpose of this study was to document the oral features of HP patients and to relate theses features to the six recognized forms of HP in 5 patients with known genotype and to investigate the genotype-phenotype correlations.

Methods: Clinical and radiographic examinations were carried out. We collected medical and dental history in the kindred and biochemical data. Finally, mutations in the ALPL gene were tested by DNA sequencing in SESEP laboratory.

Results: We have for the first time related the known dental anomalies which occur as integral features of HP to the recognized clinical forms of HP. We also pointed out striking dental abnormalities which were never described in association with this rare disease. Accurate genotype-phenotype severity correlations were observed.

Conclusion: This work allowed us to compare orodental manifestations in all the clinical forms of HP within the patient's sample. According to the severity of the disorder, some dental defects were infrequent, while other were always present. The long term prognosis of the permanent teeth varies from a patient to another. As premature loss of primary teeth is often the first, and sometimes the only visible symptom of the milder forms, the paediatric dentist plays a critical role in the detection and diagnosis of the disease.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Patient 4: Clinical view at 2.5 years of age. The lower incisors (71, 72 and 81) are lost spontaneously without gingivitis.
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Figure 1: Patient 4: Clinical view at 2.5 years of age. The lower incisors (71, 72 and 81) are lost spontaneously without gingivitis.

Mentions: All the patients had premature loss of their primary teeth, without gingival inflammation (Figure. 1, 2). The patients affected more severely (Patients 1, 2 and 3), lost teeth prior to one year of age and also exfoliated posterior teeth, while the patients midly affected (Patients 4 and 5) lost only their anterior teeth. Parents reported that before the loss of teeth, they had noticed that the teeth elongate, (like a continuing eruption). The history of premature exfoliation of teeth was only reported in the kindred of patient 2; his father losing his permanent teeth in his second decade, without signs of periodontitis. Unfortunately, most of the parents did not remember the age at which they lost their own primary dentitions.


Orodental phenotype and genotype findings in all subtypes of hypophosphatasia.

Reibel A, Manière MC, Clauss F, Droz D, Alembik Y, Mornet E, Bloch-Zupan A - Orphanet J Rare Dis (2009)

Patient 4: Clinical view at 2.5 years of age. The lower incisors (71, 72 and 81) are lost spontaneously without gingivitis.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2654544&req=5

Figure 1: Patient 4: Clinical view at 2.5 years of age. The lower incisors (71, 72 and 81) are lost spontaneously without gingivitis.
Mentions: All the patients had premature loss of their primary teeth, without gingival inflammation (Figure. 1, 2). The patients affected more severely (Patients 1, 2 and 3), lost teeth prior to one year of age and also exfoliated posterior teeth, while the patients midly affected (Patients 4 and 5) lost only their anterior teeth. Parents reported that before the loss of teeth, they had noticed that the teeth elongate, (like a continuing eruption). The history of premature exfoliation of teeth was only reported in the kindred of patient 2; his father losing his permanent teeth in his second decade, without signs of periodontitis. Unfortunately, most of the parents did not remember the age at which they lost their own primary dentitions.

Bottom Line: According to the severity of the disorder, some dental defects were infrequent, while other were always present.The long term prognosis of the permanent teeth varies from a patient to another.As premature loss of primary teeth is often the first, and sometimes the only visible symptom of the milder forms, the paediatric dentist plays a critical role in the detection and diagnosis of the disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Strasbourg, France. ame.reibel@wanadoo.fr

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypophosphatasia (HP) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by a wide spectrum of defects in mineralized tissues and caused by deficiency in the tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase gene (ALPL). The symptoms are highly variable in their clinical expression, and relate to numerous mutations in this gene. The first clinical sign of the disease is often a premature loss of deciduous teeth, mostly in the moderate forms.

Aim: The purpose of this study was to document the oral features of HP patients and to relate theses features to the six recognized forms of HP in 5 patients with known genotype and to investigate the genotype-phenotype correlations.

Methods: Clinical and radiographic examinations were carried out. We collected medical and dental history in the kindred and biochemical data. Finally, mutations in the ALPL gene were tested by DNA sequencing in SESEP laboratory.

Results: We have for the first time related the known dental anomalies which occur as integral features of HP to the recognized clinical forms of HP. We also pointed out striking dental abnormalities which were never described in association with this rare disease. Accurate genotype-phenotype severity correlations were observed.

Conclusion: This work allowed us to compare orodental manifestations in all the clinical forms of HP within the patient's sample. According to the severity of the disorder, some dental defects were infrequent, while other were always present. The long term prognosis of the permanent teeth varies from a patient to another. As premature loss of primary teeth is often the first, and sometimes the only visible symptom of the milder forms, the paediatric dentist plays a critical role in the detection and diagnosis of the disease.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus