Limits...
Inhibition of GSK3 phosphorylation of beta-catenin via phosphorylated PPPSPXS motifs of Wnt coreceptor LRP6.

Wu G, Huang H, Garcia Abreu J, He X - PLoS ONE (2009)

Bottom Line: On activation by Wnt, the Wnt co-receptor LDL receptor related protein 6 (LRP6) is phosphorylated at multiple conserved intracellular PPPSPXS motifs by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and casein kinase 1 (CK1), resulting in recruitment of the scaffolding protein Axin to LRP6.We also show that a phosphorylated PPPSPXS peptide is able to activate Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and to induce axis duplication in Xenopus embryos, presumably by inhibition of GSK3 in vivo.Based on these observations, we propose a working model that Axin recruitment to the phosphorylated LRP6 places GSK3 in the vicinity of multiple phosphorylated PPPSPXS motifs, which directly inhibit GSK3 phosphorylation of beta-catenin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: F M Kirby Neurobiology Center, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. geng.wu@sjtu.edu.cn

ABSTRACT
The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway plays essential roles in cell proliferation and differentiation, and deregulated beta-catenin protein levels lead to many types of human cancers. On activation by Wnt, the Wnt co-receptor LDL receptor related protein 6 (LRP6) is phosphorylated at multiple conserved intracellular PPPSPXS motifs by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and casein kinase 1 (CK1), resulting in recruitment of the scaffolding protein Axin to LRP6. As a result, beta-catenin phosphorylation by GSK3 is inhibited and beta-catenin protein is stabilized. However, how LRP6 phosphorylation and the ensuing LRP6-Axin interaction lead to the inhibition of beta-catenin phosphorylation by GSK3 is not fully understood. In this study, we reconstituted Axin-dependent beta-catenin phosphorylation by GSK3 and CK1 in vitro using recombinant proteins, and found that the phosphorylated PPPSPXS peptides directly inhibit beta-catenin phosphorylation by GSK3 in a sequence and phosphorylation-dependent manner. This inhibitory effect of phosphorylated PPPSPXS motifs is direct and specific for GSK3 phosphorylation of beta-catenin at Ser33/Ser37/Thr41 but not for CK1 phosphorylation of beta-catenin at Ser45, and is independent of Axin function. We also show that a phosphorylated PPPSPXS peptide is able to activate Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and to induce axis duplication in Xenopus embryos, presumably by inhibition of GSK3 in vivo. Based on these observations, we propose a working model that Axin recruitment to the phosphorylated LRP6 places GSK3 in the vicinity of multiple phosphorylated PPPSPXS motifs, which directly inhibit GSK3 phosphorylation of beta-catenin. This model provides a possible mechanism to account, in part, for inhibition of beta-catenin phosphorylation by Wnt-activated LRP6.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

In vitro reconstitution of Axin-dependent and CK1 priming-dependent β-catenin phosphorylation by GSK3.A. Recombinant GST-β-catenin, Flag-CK1, MBP-Axin, and His-GSK3 proteins were expressed in bacteria or insect cells and purified by glutathione agarose, anti-Flag M2 agarose, amylose resin, or Ni-NTA resin, respectively. In the case of β-catenin, GST was cleaved via thrombin and purified away from β-catenin. * indicates each recombinant protein. B. β-catenin phosphorylation by CK1 was reconstituted in vitro using purified proteins. The phosphorylation reaction products were analyzed by western blotting using an anti-phospho-Ser45 β-catenin antibody. C. Axin-dependent phosphorylation by GSK3 was reconstituted in vitro using purified proteins. For Axin-dependent β-catenin phosphorylation in this and other figures, 0.43 µM of GSK3, 0.54 µM of CK1α, 0.21 µM of Axin, and 0.73 µM of β-catenin were used in each assay. The phosphorylation reaction products were analyzed by western blotting using an anti-phospho-Ser45 β-catenin antibody and an anti-phospho-Ser33/Ser37/Thr41 β-catenin antibody.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2654145&req=5

pone-0004926-g001: In vitro reconstitution of Axin-dependent and CK1 priming-dependent β-catenin phosphorylation by GSK3.A. Recombinant GST-β-catenin, Flag-CK1, MBP-Axin, and His-GSK3 proteins were expressed in bacteria or insect cells and purified by glutathione agarose, anti-Flag M2 agarose, amylose resin, or Ni-NTA resin, respectively. In the case of β-catenin, GST was cleaved via thrombin and purified away from β-catenin. * indicates each recombinant protein. B. β-catenin phosphorylation by CK1 was reconstituted in vitro using purified proteins. The phosphorylation reaction products were analyzed by western blotting using an anti-phospho-Ser45 β-catenin antibody. C. Axin-dependent phosphorylation by GSK3 was reconstituted in vitro using purified proteins. For Axin-dependent β-catenin phosphorylation in this and other figures, 0.43 µM of GSK3, 0.54 µM of CK1α, 0.21 µM of Axin, and 0.73 µM of β-catenin were used in each assay. The phosphorylation reaction products were analyzed by western blotting using an anti-phospho-Ser45 β-catenin antibody and an anti-phospho-Ser33/Ser37/Thr41 β-catenin antibody.

Mentions: To study how β-catenin phosphorylation is regulated by upstream components of the Wnt pathway, we reconstituted an in vitro kinase assay for β-catenin amino-terminal phosphorylation using purified proteins. We overexpressed recombinant β-catenin, Axin, CK1β, and GSK3β proteins in either E. coli or baculovirus-infected insect cells, and purified these proteins to over 90% homogeneity by affinity chromatography (Figure 1A). We incubated purified β-catenin with Axin, CK1, and GSK3 protein in the presence of ATP and MgCl2 at 37°C for 3 hours. β-catenin phopshorylation was analyzed by immunoblotting using an antibody specific for Ser45-phosphorylation (by CK1) or an antibody specific for Ser33/Ser37/Thr41-phosphorylation (by GSK3).


Inhibition of GSK3 phosphorylation of beta-catenin via phosphorylated PPPSPXS motifs of Wnt coreceptor LRP6.

Wu G, Huang H, Garcia Abreu J, He X - PLoS ONE (2009)

In vitro reconstitution of Axin-dependent and CK1 priming-dependent β-catenin phosphorylation by GSK3.A. Recombinant GST-β-catenin, Flag-CK1, MBP-Axin, and His-GSK3 proteins were expressed in bacteria or insect cells and purified by glutathione agarose, anti-Flag M2 agarose, amylose resin, or Ni-NTA resin, respectively. In the case of β-catenin, GST was cleaved via thrombin and purified away from β-catenin. * indicates each recombinant protein. B. β-catenin phosphorylation by CK1 was reconstituted in vitro using purified proteins. The phosphorylation reaction products were analyzed by western blotting using an anti-phospho-Ser45 β-catenin antibody. C. Axin-dependent phosphorylation by GSK3 was reconstituted in vitro using purified proteins. For Axin-dependent β-catenin phosphorylation in this and other figures, 0.43 µM of GSK3, 0.54 µM of CK1α, 0.21 µM of Axin, and 0.73 µM of β-catenin were used in each assay. The phosphorylation reaction products were analyzed by western blotting using an anti-phospho-Ser45 β-catenin antibody and an anti-phospho-Ser33/Ser37/Thr41 β-catenin antibody.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2654145&req=5

pone-0004926-g001: In vitro reconstitution of Axin-dependent and CK1 priming-dependent β-catenin phosphorylation by GSK3.A. Recombinant GST-β-catenin, Flag-CK1, MBP-Axin, and His-GSK3 proteins were expressed in bacteria or insect cells and purified by glutathione agarose, anti-Flag M2 agarose, amylose resin, or Ni-NTA resin, respectively. In the case of β-catenin, GST was cleaved via thrombin and purified away from β-catenin. * indicates each recombinant protein. B. β-catenin phosphorylation by CK1 was reconstituted in vitro using purified proteins. The phosphorylation reaction products were analyzed by western blotting using an anti-phospho-Ser45 β-catenin antibody. C. Axin-dependent phosphorylation by GSK3 was reconstituted in vitro using purified proteins. For Axin-dependent β-catenin phosphorylation in this and other figures, 0.43 µM of GSK3, 0.54 µM of CK1α, 0.21 µM of Axin, and 0.73 µM of β-catenin were used in each assay. The phosphorylation reaction products were analyzed by western blotting using an anti-phospho-Ser45 β-catenin antibody and an anti-phospho-Ser33/Ser37/Thr41 β-catenin antibody.
Mentions: To study how β-catenin phosphorylation is regulated by upstream components of the Wnt pathway, we reconstituted an in vitro kinase assay for β-catenin amino-terminal phosphorylation using purified proteins. We overexpressed recombinant β-catenin, Axin, CK1β, and GSK3β proteins in either E. coli or baculovirus-infected insect cells, and purified these proteins to over 90% homogeneity by affinity chromatography (Figure 1A). We incubated purified β-catenin with Axin, CK1, and GSK3 protein in the presence of ATP and MgCl2 at 37°C for 3 hours. β-catenin phopshorylation was analyzed by immunoblotting using an antibody specific for Ser45-phosphorylation (by CK1) or an antibody specific for Ser33/Ser37/Thr41-phosphorylation (by GSK3).

Bottom Line: On activation by Wnt, the Wnt co-receptor LDL receptor related protein 6 (LRP6) is phosphorylated at multiple conserved intracellular PPPSPXS motifs by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and casein kinase 1 (CK1), resulting in recruitment of the scaffolding protein Axin to LRP6.We also show that a phosphorylated PPPSPXS peptide is able to activate Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and to induce axis duplication in Xenopus embryos, presumably by inhibition of GSK3 in vivo.Based on these observations, we propose a working model that Axin recruitment to the phosphorylated LRP6 places GSK3 in the vicinity of multiple phosphorylated PPPSPXS motifs, which directly inhibit GSK3 phosphorylation of beta-catenin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: F M Kirby Neurobiology Center, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. geng.wu@sjtu.edu.cn

ABSTRACT
The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway plays essential roles in cell proliferation and differentiation, and deregulated beta-catenin protein levels lead to many types of human cancers. On activation by Wnt, the Wnt co-receptor LDL receptor related protein 6 (LRP6) is phosphorylated at multiple conserved intracellular PPPSPXS motifs by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and casein kinase 1 (CK1), resulting in recruitment of the scaffolding protein Axin to LRP6. As a result, beta-catenin phosphorylation by GSK3 is inhibited and beta-catenin protein is stabilized. However, how LRP6 phosphorylation and the ensuing LRP6-Axin interaction lead to the inhibition of beta-catenin phosphorylation by GSK3 is not fully understood. In this study, we reconstituted Axin-dependent beta-catenin phosphorylation by GSK3 and CK1 in vitro using recombinant proteins, and found that the phosphorylated PPPSPXS peptides directly inhibit beta-catenin phosphorylation by GSK3 in a sequence and phosphorylation-dependent manner. This inhibitory effect of phosphorylated PPPSPXS motifs is direct and specific for GSK3 phosphorylation of beta-catenin at Ser33/Ser37/Thr41 but not for CK1 phosphorylation of beta-catenin at Ser45, and is independent of Axin function. We also show that a phosphorylated PPPSPXS peptide is able to activate Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and to induce axis duplication in Xenopus embryos, presumably by inhibition of GSK3 in vivo. Based on these observations, we propose a working model that Axin recruitment to the phosphorylated LRP6 places GSK3 in the vicinity of multiple phosphorylated PPPSPXS motifs, which directly inhibit GSK3 phosphorylation of beta-catenin. This model provides a possible mechanism to account, in part, for inhibition of beta-catenin phosphorylation by Wnt-activated LRP6.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus