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Is the new primate genus rungwecebus a baboon?

Zinner D, Arnold ML, Roos C - PLoS ONE (2009)

Bottom Line: Based on mitochondrial sequence data the kipunji clusters with baboon lineages that lie nearest to it geographically, i.e. populations of yellow and chacma baboons from south-eastern Africa, and thus does not represent a sister taxon to Papio.Subsequent backcrossing of the hybrids with kipunjis would have resulted in a population with a nuclear kipunji genome, but which retained the yellow/chacma baboon mitochondrial genome.Further studies with additional Rungwecebus samples are necessary to elucidate the complete evolutionary history of this newly-described primate genus.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cognitive Ethology, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Göttingen, Germany. dzinner@gwdg.de

ABSTRACT

Background: In 2005, a new primate species from Tanzania, the kipunji, was described and recognized as a member of the mangabey genus Lophocebus. However, molecular investigations based upon a number of papionins, including a limited sample of baboons of mainly unknown geographic origin, identified the kipunji as a sister taxon to Papio and not as a member of Lophocebus. Accordingly, the kipunji was separated into its own monotypic genus, Rungwecebus.

Methodology/principal findings: We compare available mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data from the voucher specimen of Rungwecebus to other papionin lineages, including a set of geographically proximal (parapatric) baboon samples. Based on mitochondrial sequence data the kipunji clusters with baboon lineages that lie nearest to it geographically, i.e. populations of yellow and chacma baboons from south-eastern Africa, and thus does not represent a sister taxon to Papio. Nuclear data support a Papio+Rungwecebus clade, but it remains questionable whether Rungwecebus represents a sister taxon to Papio, or whether it is nested within the genus as depicted by the mitochondrial phylogeny.

Conclusions/significance: Our study clearly supports a close relationship between Rungwecebus and Papio and might indicate that the kipunji is congeneric with baboon species. However, due to its morphological and ecological uniqueness Rungwecebus more likely represents a sister lineage to Papio and experienced later introgressive hybridization. Presumably, male (proto-)kipunjis reproduced with sympatric female baboons. Subsequent backcrossing of the hybrids with kipunjis would have resulted in a population with a nuclear kipunji genome, but which retained the yellow/chacma baboon mitochondrial genome. Since only one kipunji specimen was studied, it remains unclear whether all members of the new genus have been impacted by intergeneric introgression or rather only some populations. Further studies with additional Rungwecebus samples are necessary to elucidate the complete evolutionary history of this newly-described primate genus.

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Phylogenetic position of Rungwecebus in relation to Papio and other members of the Papionini - mitochondrial DNA phylogeny.The phylogram is based on the neighbor-joining algorithm and by applying the TrN+I+G model of sequence evolution. Marked * nodes yielded bootstrap values of ≥85% (for MP, NJ and ML) or posterior probability values of ≥0.95 (Bayesian). Red = P. papio, green = P. anubis, grey = P. hamadryas, yellow = P. cynocephalus, brown = P. ursinus. Bars on the right side of the phylogram denote respective baboon clades and are discussed in the text.
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pone-0004859-g002: Phylogenetic position of Rungwecebus in relation to Papio and other members of the Papionini - mitochondrial DNA phylogeny.The phylogram is based on the neighbor-joining algorithm and by applying the TrN+I+G model of sequence evolution. Marked * nodes yielded bootstrap values of ≥85% (for MP, NJ and ML) or posterior probability values of ≥0.95 (Bayesian). Red = P. papio, green = P. anubis, grey = P. hamadryas, yellow = P. cynocephalus, brown = P. ursinus. Bars on the right side of the phylogram denote respective baboon clades and are discussed in the text.

Mentions: Our mitochondrial data sets included all seven papionin genera. Furthermore, the 25 baboon individuals represented all five Papio species (P. papio, P. hamadryas, P. anubis, P. cynocephalus, P. ursinus) and covered most of the genus' geographic distribution. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions for the three individual loci (Figures S1, S2, S3) and the concatenated data set with 1486 bp in length (Figure 2) revealed mainly identical and highly supported relationships, with only a few remaining unresolved or with low support. We found strong support for the division of African papionins into two major clades, one with Mandrillus and Cercocebus, and the other with Lophocebus, Theropithecus, Papio and Rungwecebus. Among the latter, a common origin of Papio and Rungwecebus was highly supported, but the relationship between this clade and either Lophocebus or Theropithecus was not well resolved. Within the Papio+Rungwecebus clade, we found several strongly supported haplogroups. However, these did not correspond to the traditionally recognized baboon species, and with the exception of P. papio, all other baboon taxa were para- or polyphyletic. In contrast, we found a strong geographical signal with local populations forming monophyletic haplogroups irrespective of their species affiliations. This reflects clearly the discordance between mitochondrial phylogeny and baboon morphology. The same is also true for Rungwecebus, which did not represent a sister lineage to the Papio genus [2], [6], but instead clustered with yellow baboons (P. cynocephalus) from southern Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia and with chacma baboons (P. ursinus) from Zimbabwe, northern Namibia and northern South Africa. These yellow and chacma baboons from south-east Africa represent local populations that are geographically closest to Rungwecebus (Figure 1). To test for the reliability of the depicted relationships, we evaluated alternative phylogenetic positions of Rungwecebus among papionins with the Kishino-Hasegawa (KH) [7] and Shimodaira-Hasegawa (SH) [8] tests. Accordingly, a sister grouping of Rungwecebus to Papio, Theropithecus, Lophocebus or a Cercocebus+Mandrillus clade was significantly rejected (P<0.001, Table 1).


Is the new primate genus rungwecebus a baboon?

Zinner D, Arnold ML, Roos C - PLoS ONE (2009)

Phylogenetic position of Rungwecebus in relation to Papio and other members of the Papionini - mitochondrial DNA phylogeny.The phylogram is based on the neighbor-joining algorithm and by applying the TrN+I+G model of sequence evolution. Marked * nodes yielded bootstrap values of ≥85% (for MP, NJ and ML) or posterior probability values of ≥0.95 (Bayesian). Red = P. papio, green = P. anubis, grey = P. hamadryas, yellow = P. cynocephalus, brown = P. ursinus. Bars on the right side of the phylogram denote respective baboon clades and are discussed in the text.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2654078&req=5

pone-0004859-g002: Phylogenetic position of Rungwecebus in relation to Papio and other members of the Papionini - mitochondrial DNA phylogeny.The phylogram is based on the neighbor-joining algorithm and by applying the TrN+I+G model of sequence evolution. Marked * nodes yielded bootstrap values of ≥85% (for MP, NJ and ML) or posterior probability values of ≥0.95 (Bayesian). Red = P. papio, green = P. anubis, grey = P. hamadryas, yellow = P. cynocephalus, brown = P. ursinus. Bars on the right side of the phylogram denote respective baboon clades and are discussed in the text.
Mentions: Our mitochondrial data sets included all seven papionin genera. Furthermore, the 25 baboon individuals represented all five Papio species (P. papio, P. hamadryas, P. anubis, P. cynocephalus, P. ursinus) and covered most of the genus' geographic distribution. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions for the three individual loci (Figures S1, S2, S3) and the concatenated data set with 1486 bp in length (Figure 2) revealed mainly identical and highly supported relationships, with only a few remaining unresolved or with low support. We found strong support for the division of African papionins into two major clades, one with Mandrillus and Cercocebus, and the other with Lophocebus, Theropithecus, Papio and Rungwecebus. Among the latter, a common origin of Papio and Rungwecebus was highly supported, but the relationship between this clade and either Lophocebus or Theropithecus was not well resolved. Within the Papio+Rungwecebus clade, we found several strongly supported haplogroups. However, these did not correspond to the traditionally recognized baboon species, and with the exception of P. papio, all other baboon taxa were para- or polyphyletic. In contrast, we found a strong geographical signal with local populations forming monophyletic haplogroups irrespective of their species affiliations. This reflects clearly the discordance between mitochondrial phylogeny and baboon morphology. The same is also true for Rungwecebus, which did not represent a sister lineage to the Papio genus [2], [6], but instead clustered with yellow baboons (P. cynocephalus) from southern Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia and with chacma baboons (P. ursinus) from Zimbabwe, northern Namibia and northern South Africa. These yellow and chacma baboons from south-east Africa represent local populations that are geographically closest to Rungwecebus (Figure 1). To test for the reliability of the depicted relationships, we evaluated alternative phylogenetic positions of Rungwecebus among papionins with the Kishino-Hasegawa (KH) [7] and Shimodaira-Hasegawa (SH) [8] tests. Accordingly, a sister grouping of Rungwecebus to Papio, Theropithecus, Lophocebus or a Cercocebus+Mandrillus clade was significantly rejected (P<0.001, Table 1).

Bottom Line: Based on mitochondrial sequence data the kipunji clusters with baboon lineages that lie nearest to it geographically, i.e. populations of yellow and chacma baboons from south-eastern Africa, and thus does not represent a sister taxon to Papio.Subsequent backcrossing of the hybrids with kipunjis would have resulted in a population with a nuclear kipunji genome, but which retained the yellow/chacma baboon mitochondrial genome.Further studies with additional Rungwecebus samples are necessary to elucidate the complete evolutionary history of this newly-described primate genus.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cognitive Ethology, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Göttingen, Germany. dzinner@gwdg.de

ABSTRACT

Background: In 2005, a new primate species from Tanzania, the kipunji, was described and recognized as a member of the mangabey genus Lophocebus. However, molecular investigations based upon a number of papionins, including a limited sample of baboons of mainly unknown geographic origin, identified the kipunji as a sister taxon to Papio and not as a member of Lophocebus. Accordingly, the kipunji was separated into its own monotypic genus, Rungwecebus.

Methodology/principal findings: We compare available mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data from the voucher specimen of Rungwecebus to other papionin lineages, including a set of geographically proximal (parapatric) baboon samples. Based on mitochondrial sequence data the kipunji clusters with baboon lineages that lie nearest to it geographically, i.e. populations of yellow and chacma baboons from south-eastern Africa, and thus does not represent a sister taxon to Papio. Nuclear data support a Papio+Rungwecebus clade, but it remains questionable whether Rungwecebus represents a sister taxon to Papio, or whether it is nested within the genus as depicted by the mitochondrial phylogeny.

Conclusions/significance: Our study clearly supports a close relationship between Rungwecebus and Papio and might indicate that the kipunji is congeneric with baboon species. However, due to its morphological and ecological uniqueness Rungwecebus more likely represents a sister lineage to Papio and experienced later introgressive hybridization. Presumably, male (proto-)kipunjis reproduced with sympatric female baboons. Subsequent backcrossing of the hybrids with kipunjis would have resulted in a population with a nuclear kipunji genome, but which retained the yellow/chacma baboon mitochondrial genome. Since only one kipunji specimen was studied, it remains unclear whether all members of the new genus have been impacted by intergeneric introgression or rather only some populations. Further studies with additional Rungwecebus samples are necessary to elucidate the complete evolutionary history of this newly-described primate genus.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus