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Is the new primate genus rungwecebus a baboon?

Zinner D, Arnold ML, Roos C - PLoS ONE (2009)

Bottom Line: Based on mitochondrial sequence data the kipunji clusters with baboon lineages that lie nearest to it geographically, i.e. populations of yellow and chacma baboons from south-eastern Africa, and thus does not represent a sister taxon to Papio.Subsequent backcrossing of the hybrids with kipunjis would have resulted in a population with a nuclear kipunji genome, but which retained the yellow/chacma baboon mitochondrial genome.Further studies with additional Rungwecebus samples are necessary to elucidate the complete evolutionary history of this newly-described primate genus.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cognitive Ethology, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Göttingen, Germany. dzinner@gwdg.de

ABSTRACT

Background: In 2005, a new primate species from Tanzania, the kipunji, was described and recognized as a member of the mangabey genus Lophocebus. However, molecular investigations based upon a number of papionins, including a limited sample of baboons of mainly unknown geographic origin, identified the kipunji as a sister taxon to Papio and not as a member of Lophocebus. Accordingly, the kipunji was separated into its own monotypic genus, Rungwecebus.

Methodology/principal findings: We compare available mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data from the voucher specimen of Rungwecebus to other papionin lineages, including a set of geographically proximal (parapatric) baboon samples. Based on mitochondrial sequence data the kipunji clusters with baboon lineages that lie nearest to it geographically, i.e. populations of yellow and chacma baboons from south-eastern Africa, and thus does not represent a sister taxon to Papio. Nuclear data support a Papio+Rungwecebus clade, but it remains questionable whether Rungwecebus represents a sister taxon to Papio, or whether it is nested within the genus as depicted by the mitochondrial phylogeny.

Conclusions/significance: Our study clearly supports a close relationship between Rungwecebus and Papio and might indicate that the kipunji is congeneric with baboon species. However, due to its morphological and ecological uniqueness Rungwecebus more likely represents a sister lineage to Papio and experienced later introgressive hybridization. Presumably, male (proto-)kipunjis reproduced with sympatric female baboons. Subsequent backcrossing of the hybrids with kipunjis would have resulted in a population with a nuclear kipunji genome, but which retained the yellow/chacma baboon mitochondrial genome. Since only one kipunji specimen was studied, it remains unclear whether all members of the new genus have been impacted by intergeneric introgression or rather only some populations. Further studies with additional Rungwecebus samples are necessary to elucidate the complete evolutionary history of this newly-described primate genus.

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Distribution of Papio [modified after 63] and Rungwecebus (blue boxes), and collecting sites of samples.Blue dot = origin of the Rungwecebus sample [2] from the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. A second population of Rungwecebus was found in the Udzungwa Mountains [1]. Names of baboon collecting sites and their geographical coordinates are given in Table S1.
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pone-0004859-g001: Distribution of Papio [modified after 63] and Rungwecebus (blue boxes), and collecting sites of samples.Blue dot = origin of the Rungwecebus sample [2] from the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. A second population of Rungwecebus was found in the Udzungwa Mountains [1]. Names of baboon collecting sites and their geographical coordinates are given in Table S1.

Mentions: To place Rungwecebus kipunji phylogenetically, Davenport et al. [2] generated sequences of three mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase subunit I, COI; cytochrome oxidase subunit II, COII; 12SrRNA) and two nuclear (α 1,3 galactosyltransferase, α 1,3-GT; Y chromosomal testis-specific protein, TSPY) loci of a single voucher specimen. In 2008, another three nuclear loci (autosomal lipoprotein, LPA; autosomal gene encoding CD4; X chromosomal region, Xq13.3) of Rungwecebus became available and the TSPY sequence data were expanded [6]. In both studies, the Rungwecebus data were compared with orthologous sequences of other Old World monkeys, deposited in GenBank. However, the GenBank data did not cover the full taxonomic and geographic range of Papio (Figure 1). In particular, sequences from Papio of southern Tanzania and neighboring regions, those geographically nearest to the range of Rungwecebus, were not available for both analyses [2], [6]. Furthermore, many of the Papio sequences in GenBank are of unknown geographic origin because they derived from captive animals. In the course of a study on the evolution and phylogeography of Papio, we compared the available nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data of Rungwecebus with orthologous data of baboons from known geographic origin and representatives of all other papionin genera.


Is the new primate genus rungwecebus a baboon?

Zinner D, Arnold ML, Roos C - PLoS ONE (2009)

Distribution of Papio [modified after 63] and Rungwecebus (blue boxes), and collecting sites of samples.Blue dot = origin of the Rungwecebus sample [2] from the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. A second population of Rungwecebus was found in the Udzungwa Mountains [1]. Names of baboon collecting sites and their geographical coordinates are given in Table S1.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2654078&req=5

pone-0004859-g001: Distribution of Papio [modified after 63] and Rungwecebus (blue boxes), and collecting sites of samples.Blue dot = origin of the Rungwecebus sample [2] from the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. A second population of Rungwecebus was found in the Udzungwa Mountains [1]. Names of baboon collecting sites and their geographical coordinates are given in Table S1.
Mentions: To place Rungwecebus kipunji phylogenetically, Davenport et al. [2] generated sequences of three mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase subunit I, COI; cytochrome oxidase subunit II, COII; 12SrRNA) and two nuclear (α 1,3 galactosyltransferase, α 1,3-GT; Y chromosomal testis-specific protein, TSPY) loci of a single voucher specimen. In 2008, another three nuclear loci (autosomal lipoprotein, LPA; autosomal gene encoding CD4; X chromosomal region, Xq13.3) of Rungwecebus became available and the TSPY sequence data were expanded [6]. In both studies, the Rungwecebus data were compared with orthologous sequences of other Old World monkeys, deposited in GenBank. However, the GenBank data did not cover the full taxonomic and geographic range of Papio (Figure 1). In particular, sequences from Papio of southern Tanzania and neighboring regions, those geographically nearest to the range of Rungwecebus, were not available for both analyses [2], [6]. Furthermore, many of the Papio sequences in GenBank are of unknown geographic origin because they derived from captive animals. In the course of a study on the evolution and phylogeography of Papio, we compared the available nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data of Rungwecebus with orthologous data of baboons from known geographic origin and representatives of all other papionin genera.

Bottom Line: Based on mitochondrial sequence data the kipunji clusters with baboon lineages that lie nearest to it geographically, i.e. populations of yellow and chacma baboons from south-eastern Africa, and thus does not represent a sister taxon to Papio.Subsequent backcrossing of the hybrids with kipunjis would have resulted in a population with a nuclear kipunji genome, but which retained the yellow/chacma baboon mitochondrial genome.Further studies with additional Rungwecebus samples are necessary to elucidate the complete evolutionary history of this newly-described primate genus.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cognitive Ethology, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Göttingen, Germany. dzinner@gwdg.de

ABSTRACT

Background: In 2005, a new primate species from Tanzania, the kipunji, was described and recognized as a member of the mangabey genus Lophocebus. However, molecular investigations based upon a number of papionins, including a limited sample of baboons of mainly unknown geographic origin, identified the kipunji as a sister taxon to Papio and not as a member of Lophocebus. Accordingly, the kipunji was separated into its own monotypic genus, Rungwecebus.

Methodology/principal findings: We compare available mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data from the voucher specimen of Rungwecebus to other papionin lineages, including a set of geographically proximal (parapatric) baboon samples. Based on mitochondrial sequence data the kipunji clusters with baboon lineages that lie nearest to it geographically, i.e. populations of yellow and chacma baboons from south-eastern Africa, and thus does not represent a sister taxon to Papio. Nuclear data support a Papio+Rungwecebus clade, but it remains questionable whether Rungwecebus represents a sister taxon to Papio, or whether it is nested within the genus as depicted by the mitochondrial phylogeny.

Conclusions/significance: Our study clearly supports a close relationship between Rungwecebus and Papio and might indicate that the kipunji is congeneric with baboon species. However, due to its morphological and ecological uniqueness Rungwecebus more likely represents a sister lineage to Papio and experienced later introgressive hybridization. Presumably, male (proto-)kipunjis reproduced with sympatric female baboons. Subsequent backcrossing of the hybrids with kipunjis would have resulted in a population with a nuclear kipunji genome, but which retained the yellow/chacma baboon mitochondrial genome. Since only one kipunji specimen was studied, it remains unclear whether all members of the new genus have been impacted by intergeneric introgression or rather only some populations. Further studies with additional Rungwecebus samples are necessary to elucidate the complete evolutionary history of this newly-described primate genus.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus