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Cellular versus viral microRNAs in host-virus interaction.

Ghosh Z, Mallick B, Chakrabarti J - Nucleic Acids Res. (2008)

Bottom Line: There have been reported evidences of host-cellular miRNAs modulating the expression of various viral genes, thereby playing a pivotal role in the host-pathogen interaction network.Nevertheless, our increasing knowledge of the host-virus interaction at the molecular level should lead us toward possible explanations to viral tropism, latency and oncogenesis along with the development of an effective, durable and nontoxic antiviral therapy.Here, we summarize the recent updates on miRNA-induced gene-silencing mechanism, modulating host-virus interactions with a glimpse of the miRNA-based antiviral therapy for near future.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Computational Biology Group, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Calcutta 700 032, India. ghosh.jhumur@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) mark a new paradigm of RNA-directed gene expression regulation in a wide spectrum of biological systems. These small non-coding RNAs can contribute to the repertoire of host-pathogen interactions during viral infection. This interplay has important consequences, both for the virus and the host. There have been reported evidences of host-cellular miRNAs modulating the expression of various viral genes, thereby playing a pivotal role in the host-pathogen interaction network. In the hide-and-seek game between the pathogens and the infected host, viruses have evolved highly sophisticated gene-silencing mechanisms to evade host-immune response. Recent reports indicate that virus too encode miRNAs that protect them against cellular antiviral response. Furthermore, they may exploit the cellular miRNA pathway to their own advantage. Nevertheless, our increasing knowledge of the host-virus interaction at the molecular level should lead us toward possible explanations to viral tropism, latency and oncogenesis along with the development of an effective, durable and nontoxic antiviral therapy. Here, we summarize the recent updates on miRNA-induced gene-silencing mechanism, modulating host-virus interactions with a glimpse of the miRNA-based antiviral therapy for near future.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Biogenesis of microRNAs. Processing of both host miRNAs (violet) and virus-encoded miRNAs (blue) is assumed to occur through the same pathway. The arrows (pink) indicate the effects of cellular miRNAs on their own cellular transcripts as well as on viral transcripts. The violet arrow shows the effects of virus-encoded miRNAs on both cellular and viral transcripts. Both these arrows suggest possible miRNA-mediated interactions between viruses and their hosts.
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Figure 1: Biogenesis of microRNAs. Processing of both host miRNAs (violet) and virus-encoded miRNAs (blue) is assumed to occur through the same pathway. The arrows (pink) indicate the effects of cellular miRNAs on their own cellular transcripts as well as on viral transcripts. The violet arrow shows the effects of virus-encoded miRNAs on both cellular and viral transcripts. Both these arrows suggest possible miRNA-mediated interactions between viruses and their hosts.

Mentions: miRNA-biogenesis pathway (Figure 1) poses some serious problem for RNA viruses and a group of DNA viruses (poxviruses) to encode miRNAs (4). However, it is possible to overcome these problems by adopting nonconventional ways. Omoto et al. (46) have reported the presence of miRNAs in HIV-1 (which is an RNA virus) infected cells, although extensive studies by Pfeffer et al. (10) as well as Lin and Cullen (47) have failed to confirm the existence of viral miRNAs in HIV. Recently, Ouellet et al. (15) have also identified miRNAs within HIV-1 trans-activation responsive (TAR) element. It is definitely essential and still needs further investigation to find whether the expression of TAR miRNAs influences viral replication or the efficiency of host-antiviral defenses.Figure 1.


Cellular versus viral microRNAs in host-virus interaction.

Ghosh Z, Mallick B, Chakrabarti J - Nucleic Acids Res. (2008)

Biogenesis of microRNAs. Processing of both host miRNAs (violet) and virus-encoded miRNAs (blue) is assumed to occur through the same pathway. The arrows (pink) indicate the effects of cellular miRNAs on their own cellular transcripts as well as on viral transcripts. The violet arrow shows the effects of virus-encoded miRNAs on both cellular and viral transcripts. Both these arrows suggest possible miRNA-mediated interactions between viruses and their hosts.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2651794&req=5

Figure 1: Biogenesis of microRNAs. Processing of both host miRNAs (violet) and virus-encoded miRNAs (blue) is assumed to occur through the same pathway. The arrows (pink) indicate the effects of cellular miRNAs on their own cellular transcripts as well as on viral transcripts. The violet arrow shows the effects of virus-encoded miRNAs on both cellular and viral transcripts. Both these arrows suggest possible miRNA-mediated interactions between viruses and their hosts.
Mentions: miRNA-biogenesis pathway (Figure 1) poses some serious problem for RNA viruses and a group of DNA viruses (poxviruses) to encode miRNAs (4). However, it is possible to overcome these problems by adopting nonconventional ways. Omoto et al. (46) have reported the presence of miRNAs in HIV-1 (which is an RNA virus) infected cells, although extensive studies by Pfeffer et al. (10) as well as Lin and Cullen (47) have failed to confirm the existence of viral miRNAs in HIV. Recently, Ouellet et al. (15) have also identified miRNAs within HIV-1 trans-activation responsive (TAR) element. It is definitely essential and still needs further investigation to find whether the expression of TAR miRNAs influences viral replication or the efficiency of host-antiviral defenses.Figure 1.

Bottom Line: There have been reported evidences of host-cellular miRNAs modulating the expression of various viral genes, thereby playing a pivotal role in the host-pathogen interaction network.Nevertheless, our increasing knowledge of the host-virus interaction at the molecular level should lead us toward possible explanations to viral tropism, latency and oncogenesis along with the development of an effective, durable and nontoxic antiviral therapy.Here, we summarize the recent updates on miRNA-induced gene-silencing mechanism, modulating host-virus interactions with a glimpse of the miRNA-based antiviral therapy for near future.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Computational Biology Group, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Calcutta 700 032, India. ghosh.jhumur@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) mark a new paradigm of RNA-directed gene expression regulation in a wide spectrum of biological systems. These small non-coding RNAs can contribute to the repertoire of host-pathogen interactions during viral infection. This interplay has important consequences, both for the virus and the host. There have been reported evidences of host-cellular miRNAs modulating the expression of various viral genes, thereby playing a pivotal role in the host-pathogen interaction network. In the hide-and-seek game between the pathogens and the infected host, viruses have evolved highly sophisticated gene-silencing mechanisms to evade host-immune response. Recent reports indicate that virus too encode miRNAs that protect them against cellular antiviral response. Furthermore, they may exploit the cellular miRNA pathway to their own advantage. Nevertheless, our increasing knowledge of the host-virus interaction at the molecular level should lead us toward possible explanations to viral tropism, latency and oncogenesis along with the development of an effective, durable and nontoxic antiviral therapy. Here, we summarize the recent updates on miRNA-induced gene-silencing mechanism, modulating host-virus interactions with a glimpse of the miRNA-based antiviral therapy for near future.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus