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Expression profiling of ascorbic acid-related genes during tomato fruit development and ripening and in response to stress conditions.

Ioannidi E, Kalamaki MS, Engineer C, Pateraki I, Alexandrou D, Mellidou I, Giovannonni J, Kanellis AK - J. Exp. Bot. (2009)

Bottom Line: L-ascorbate (the reduced form of vitamin C) participates in diverse biological processes including pathogen defence mechanisms, and the modulation of plant growth and morphology, and also acts as an enzyme cofactor and redox status indicator.Important aspects of the hypoxic and post-anoxic response in tomato fruit are discussed.The data suggest that L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase could play an important role in regulating ascorbic acid accumulation during tomato fruit development and ripening.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Group of Biotechnology of Pharmaceutical Plants, Division of Pharmacognosy-Pharmacology, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece.

ABSTRACT
L-ascorbate (the reduced form of vitamin C) participates in diverse biological processes including pathogen defence mechanisms, and the modulation of plant growth and morphology, and also acts as an enzyme cofactor and redox status indicator. One of its chief biological functions is as an antioxidant. L-ascorbate intake has been implicated in the prevention/alleviation of varied human ailments and diseases including cancer. To study the regulation of accumulation of this important nutraceutical in fruit, the expression of 24 tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) genes involved in the biosynthesis, oxidation, and recycling of L-ascorbate during the development and ripening of fruit have been characterized. Taken together with L-ascorbate abundance data, the results show distinct changes in the expression profiles for these genes, implicating them in nodal regulatory roles during the process of L-ascorbate accumulation in tomato fruit. The expression of these genes was further studied in the context of abiotic and post-harvest stress, including the effects of heat, cold, wounding, oxygen supply, and ethylene. Important aspects of the hypoxic and post-anoxic response in tomato fruit are discussed. The data suggest that L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase could play an important role in regulating ascorbic acid accumulation during tomato fruit development and ripening.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Expression of AA biosynthetic genes in mature green fruit subjected to ethylene and various stresses. Tomatoes were grown in the field and harvested at the mature green stage. After subjecting fruit to various stresses, total RNA was isolated, fractionated in denaturing agarose gels, transferred to Hybond N-membranes, and hybridized with specific 32P-radiolabelled probes. Staining with 0.04% methylene blue was performed to verify the uniformity of RNA loading on the gel. All experiments were performed in triplicate.
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fig3: Expression of AA biosynthetic genes in mature green fruit subjected to ethylene and various stresses. Tomatoes were grown in the field and harvested at the mature green stage. After subjecting fruit to various stresses, total RNA was isolated, fractionated in denaturing agarose gels, transferred to Hybond N-membranes, and hybridized with specific 32P-radiolabelled probes. Staining with 0.04% methylene blue was performed to verify the uniformity of RNA loading on the gel. All experiments were performed in triplicate.

Mentions: To investigate the effect of various stress conditions on the expression of AA biosynthetic enzymes, RNA blot analysis was performed on total RNA extracted from mature green tomatoes that were exposed to ethylene and each individual stress for a set period of time (Fig. 3). Total RNA was isolated from mature green tomatoes 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after dipping in 600 μL L−1 Ethrel. Most biosynthetic genes showed either no change in expression (PGI, PMI, PMM, GME, GGR, L-GalDH, and L-GalLDH) or a gradual decline in expression during the time course of the experiment (GMP). GPP was the only mRNA that was induced by this treatment. As illustrated in Fig. 3, transcript levels gradually increased after 3 h of exposure, peaking at 24 h, and were barely detectable at 48 h post-exposure. AKR1, AKR2, and MIOX transcripts were not detected during this treatment, whereas AKR38 showed some induction after 12 h.


Expression profiling of ascorbic acid-related genes during tomato fruit development and ripening and in response to stress conditions.

Ioannidi E, Kalamaki MS, Engineer C, Pateraki I, Alexandrou D, Mellidou I, Giovannonni J, Kanellis AK - J. Exp. Bot. (2009)

Expression of AA biosynthetic genes in mature green fruit subjected to ethylene and various stresses. Tomatoes were grown in the field and harvested at the mature green stage. After subjecting fruit to various stresses, total RNA was isolated, fractionated in denaturing agarose gels, transferred to Hybond N-membranes, and hybridized with specific 32P-radiolabelled probes. Staining with 0.04% methylene blue was performed to verify the uniformity of RNA loading on the gel. All experiments were performed in triplicate.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2651456&req=5

fig3: Expression of AA biosynthetic genes in mature green fruit subjected to ethylene and various stresses. Tomatoes were grown in the field and harvested at the mature green stage. After subjecting fruit to various stresses, total RNA was isolated, fractionated in denaturing agarose gels, transferred to Hybond N-membranes, and hybridized with specific 32P-radiolabelled probes. Staining with 0.04% methylene blue was performed to verify the uniformity of RNA loading on the gel. All experiments were performed in triplicate.
Mentions: To investigate the effect of various stress conditions on the expression of AA biosynthetic enzymes, RNA blot analysis was performed on total RNA extracted from mature green tomatoes that were exposed to ethylene and each individual stress for a set period of time (Fig. 3). Total RNA was isolated from mature green tomatoes 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after dipping in 600 μL L−1 Ethrel. Most biosynthetic genes showed either no change in expression (PGI, PMI, PMM, GME, GGR, L-GalDH, and L-GalLDH) or a gradual decline in expression during the time course of the experiment (GMP). GPP was the only mRNA that was induced by this treatment. As illustrated in Fig. 3, transcript levels gradually increased after 3 h of exposure, peaking at 24 h, and were barely detectable at 48 h post-exposure. AKR1, AKR2, and MIOX transcripts were not detected during this treatment, whereas AKR38 showed some induction after 12 h.

Bottom Line: L-ascorbate (the reduced form of vitamin C) participates in diverse biological processes including pathogen defence mechanisms, and the modulation of plant growth and morphology, and also acts as an enzyme cofactor and redox status indicator.Important aspects of the hypoxic and post-anoxic response in tomato fruit are discussed.The data suggest that L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase could play an important role in regulating ascorbic acid accumulation during tomato fruit development and ripening.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Group of Biotechnology of Pharmaceutical Plants, Division of Pharmacognosy-Pharmacology, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece.

ABSTRACT
L-ascorbate (the reduced form of vitamin C) participates in diverse biological processes including pathogen defence mechanisms, and the modulation of plant growth and morphology, and also acts as an enzyme cofactor and redox status indicator. One of its chief biological functions is as an antioxidant. L-ascorbate intake has been implicated in the prevention/alleviation of varied human ailments and diseases including cancer. To study the regulation of accumulation of this important nutraceutical in fruit, the expression of 24 tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) genes involved in the biosynthesis, oxidation, and recycling of L-ascorbate during the development and ripening of fruit have been characterized. Taken together with L-ascorbate abundance data, the results show distinct changes in the expression profiles for these genes, implicating them in nodal regulatory roles during the process of L-ascorbate accumulation in tomato fruit. The expression of these genes was further studied in the context of abiotic and post-harvest stress, including the effects of heat, cold, wounding, oxygen supply, and ethylene. Important aspects of the hypoxic and post-anoxic response in tomato fruit are discussed. The data suggest that L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase could play an important role in regulating ascorbic acid accumulation during tomato fruit development and ripening.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus